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Infant and Toddlers

Children and the elderly: Wealth inequality among America’s dependents

Individual Author: 
Gibson-Davis, Christina M.
Percheski, Christine

Life cycle theory predicts that elderly households have higher levels of wealth than households with children, but these wealth gaps are likely dynamic, responding to changes in labor market conditions, patterns of debt accumulation, and the overall economic context. Using Survey of Consumer Finances data from 1989 through 2013, we compare wealth levels between and within the two groups that make up America’s dependents: the elderly and child households (households with a resident child aged 18 or younger).

A randomized controlled trial of Child FIRST: A comprehensive home-based intervention translating research into early childhood practice

Individual Author: 
Lowell, Darcy I.
Carter, Alice S.
Godoy, Leandra
Paulicin, Belinda
Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

This randomized, controlled trial was designed to document the effectiveness of Child FIRST (Child and Family Interagency, Resource, Support, and Training), a home-based psychotherapeutic, parent-child intervention embedded in a system of care. Multirisk urban mothers and children, ages 6-36 months (= 157) participated. At the 12-month follow-up, Child FIRST children had improved language (odd ratio [OR] = 4.4) and externalizing symptoms (OR = 4.7) compared to Usual Care children.

Are there long-term effects of early child care?

Individual Author: 
Belsky, Jay
Lowe Vandell, Deborah
Burchinal, Margaret
Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison
McCartney, Kathleen
Tresch Owen, Margaret

Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4 1/2 years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of children's development than early child-care experience, higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores and more exposure to center care predicted more teacher-reported externalizing problems.

Data snapshot: Declines in child poverty continue in 2017

Individual Author: 
Carson, Jessica
Schaefer, Andrew
Mattingly, Marybeth

The official poverty measure indicates that child poverty declined by 1.1 percentage points between 2016 and 2017, according to analyses of the latest American Community Survey data released today. By 2017, child poverty across the nation was still 0.4 percentage point higher than before the Great Recession. Child poverty remained higher in cities and rural places than in the suburbs. For the first time, rates in cities dipped below the pre-recession level, although poverty is still slightly higher in rural and suburban places than in 2007. (Author abstract) 

The health status and well-being of low-resource, housing-unstable, single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Individual Author: 
Jacoby, Sara F.
Tach, Laura
Guerra, Terry
Wiebe, Douglas J.
Richmond, Therese S.

The health and well-being of single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in US cities who participate in housing programmes is not well described. This two-phase, mixed-methods study explores the health status of families who were participants in a housing-plus programme in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2013 and the relationship between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they lived and their perceptions of well-being and safety.

The Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project: How Early Head Start programs are reaching out to kith and kin caregivers

Individual Author: 
Paulsell, Diane
Mekos, Debra
Del Grosso, Patricia
Banghart, Patti
Nogales, Renée

The Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project, funded by the Head Start Bureau in 2004, supports the quality of care that family, friends and neighbors—"kith and kin" caregivers—provide to infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based Early Head Start programs. This publication describes characteristics of enrolled children, families, and caregivers. It also details early implementation experiences of pilot programs based on site visits after one year of operation. (Author abstract)

Within and beyond the classroom door: Assessing quality in child care centers

Individual Author: 
Phillips, Deborah
Mekos, Debra
Scarr, Sandra
McCartney, Kathleen
Abbott-Shim, Martha

This study reports data from a multisite study of typical center-based child care and children’s development regarding (a) associations among quality of care defined by structural features, process indicators, and compliance with state regulations, (b) variation in quality based on the stringency of state child care regulations and center compliance, and (c) specific quality indicators that show especially strong links to children’s experiences in child care.

The Chicago School Readiness Project: Examining the long-term impacts of an early childhood intervention

Individual Author: 
Watts, Tyler W.
Gandhi, Jill
Ibrahim, Deanna A.
Masucci, Michael D.
Raver, C. Cybele

The current paper reports long-term treatment impact estimates for a randomized evaluation of an early childhood intervention designed to promote children's developmental outcomes and improve the quality of Head Start centers serving high-violence and high-crime areas in inner-city Chicago. Initial evaluations of end-of-preschool data reported that the program led to reductions in child behavioral problems and gains in measures of executive function and academic achievement. For this report, we analyzed adolescent follow-up data taken 10 to 11 years after program completion.

The importance of poverty early in childhood

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine

Using a poverty line set at 60% of New Zealand’s median national income, nearly one in five New Zealand children (19%) was poor in 2011 (Figure 1, based on Perry, 2012). This poverty rate is considerably less than that of the United States and Canada, similar to that of Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany and France, and much greater that in Scandinavian countries. These rates are far from immutable; New Zealand’s child poverty rate was much higher in 2004 before social policies were enacted which focused, in part, on the country’s child poverty problem. (Author abstract)

The 2017 KIDS COUNT data book: State trends in child well-being

Individual Author: 
Gutierrez, Florencia
Speer, Laura
Boughamer, Beau
Fox, Ryan
Hamilton, Lisa
Hodgins, John
Laracy, Michael
West, Norris
Cauthen, Nancy

The 2017 KIDS COUNT Data Book urges policymakers not to back away from targeted investments that help U.S. children become healthier, more likely to complete high school and better positioned to contribute to the nation’s economy as adults. The Data Book also shows the child poverty rate in 2015 continued to drop, landing at 21%. In addition, children experienced gains in reading proficiency and a significant increase in the number of kids with health insurance.