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Infant and Toddlers

Association of maternal depressive symptoms and offspring physical health in low-income families

Individual Author: 
Thompson, Sarah M.
Jiang, Lu
Hammen, Constance
Whaley, Shannon E.

Objectives The present study sought to examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms and characteristics of offspring physical health, including health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization, among low-income families. Maternal engagement was explored as a mediator of observed effects. Methods Cross-sectional survey data from a community sample of 4589 low-income women and their preschool-age children participating in the WIC program in Los Angeles County were analyzed using logistic, Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression.

Services according to mental health needs for youth in foster care? – A multi-informant study

Individual Author: 
Larsen, Marit
Baste, Valborg
Bjørknes, Ragnhild
Myrvold, Trine
Lehmann, Stine

Background: Foster children have a high risk of mental disorders. This has contributed to increased international attention to service utilization for youth in foster care. The aim of this study is to examine whether youth in foster care receive services according to need, by using a multi-informant design. Method: Detailed information on the type and frequency of service use during the last 2 years and on youth mental health were collected from foster youths and their carers in Norway (n = 405, aged 11–17 years) through online questionnaires.

Integration of the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model across primary care settings

Individual Author: 
Eismann, Emily A.
Theuerling, Jack
Maguire, Sabine
Hente, Elizabeth A.
Shapiro, Robert A.

This project sought to assess the generalizability, barriers, and facilitators of implementing the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model for addressing psychosocial risk factors for maltreatment across multiple primary care settings, including a pediatric practice, federally qualified health center, and family medicine practice. The SEEK model includes screening caregivers for psychosocial risk factors at well-child visits age 0 to 5 years, brief intervention incorporating principles of motivational interviewing to engage caregivers, and referral to treatment.

Key federal programs to reduce childhood lead exposures and eliminate associated health impacts

Individual Author: 
The President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children

Lead exposure has been linked to a number of health effects in children. The United States has made tremendous progress in reducing lead exposure, resulting in lower childhood blood lead levels over time. This progress has resulted, in part, from the enforcement of multiple U.S. regulations and implementation of numerous federal programs that aim to reduce childhood lead exposures or ameliorate its effects.

Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004

Individual Author: 
Jones, Robert L.
Homa, David M.
Meyer, Pamela A.
Brody, Debra J.
Caldwell, Kathleen L.
Pirkle, James L.
Brown, Mary Jean


To evaluate trends in children's blood lead levels and the extent of blood lead testing of children at risk for lead poisoning from national surveys conducted during a 16-year period in the United States.


Data for children aged 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Phase I, 1988-1991, and Phase II, 1991-1994 were compared to data from the survey period 1999-2004.


Income inequality and the well-being of American families

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg
Magnuson, Katherine
Murnane, Richard
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

Income inequality has increased steadily over the past 40 years. We briefly review the nature and causes of this increase and show that income-based gaps in children's academic achievement and attainment grew as well. To probe whether the increasing income gaps may have played a role in producing the growing achievement and attainment gaps, we summarize the evidence for the effect of family income on children, paying particular attention to the strength of the evidence and the timing of economic deprivation.

Food security and poverty status across generations

Individual Author: 
Wimer, Christopher
Hartley, Robert Paul
Nam, Jaehyun

The persistence of disadvantage across generations is a central concern for social policy in the United States. While an extensive literature has focused on economic mobility for income, much less is known about the mechanisms for mobility out of poverty or material hardship. This study provides the first estimates of the intergenerational transmission of food insecurity and poverty status from childhood into early adulthood. An advantage of studying the transmission of food insecurity is that it provides a direct measure of well-being compared to income-based poverty measures.

Quality Rated Validation study report #4: Quality Rated star ratings and independent measures of quality, children’s growth, and work climate

Individual Author: 
Early, Diane
Maxwell, Kelly
Blasberg, Amy
Miranda, Brenda
Orfali, Nadia
Li, Weilin
Bultinck, Erin
Gebhart, Tracy
Mason, Rihana S.
Bingham, Gary E.

Quality Rated is Georgia’s systematic approach to assessing, improving, and communicating the level of quality in early care and education programs. In Quality Rated, center-based programs and family child care learning homes (FCCLHs) apply to receive a star rating based on a combination of an online portfolio and classroom observations of global quality using standardized tools called the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). 

Hispanic children’s participation in early care and education: Type of care by household nativity status, race/ethnicity, and child age

Individual Author: 
Crosby, Danielle A.
Mendez, Julia L.
Guzman, Lina
López, Michael

ECE programs, especially those that are high quality and center-based, have been shown to promote school readiness and early achievement for children in low-income families. Several studies have shown that low-income Hispanic parents, especially those who are foreign-born, are less likely than other parents to access some types of ECE services, particularly center-based arrangements. This brief from the National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families provides a national snapshot of ECE participation among low-income Hispanic households.

How much did households in the United States pay for child care in 2012? — Child age, household income, & community urbanicity snapshots

Individual Author: 
Forry, N.
Madill, R.
Shuey, E.
Halle, T
Ugarte, G
Borton, J.

These snapshots describe U.S. households’ costs for, and usage of, ECE in 2012, looking at differences by age of child, household income, and community urbanicity.