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Formerly Incarcerated/Reentering

Removing criminal records as a barrier for TANF recipients

Individual Author: 
Ovwigho, Pamela C.
Patterson, Kathryn W.
Born, Catherine E.

One option for some of these individuals is criminal record expungement. Expungement is the process of legally destroying, obliterating or striking out records or information in files, computers and other depositories relating to criminal charges. In Maryland, the records cannot be accessed for general law enforcement or civil use. An expunged record may usually not be considered by any private or public entity in employment matters, certification, licensing, revocation of certification or licensure, or registration.

Drug testing and crime-related restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance

Individual Author: 
McCarty, Maggie
Falk, Gene
Aussenberg, Randy A.
Carpenter, David H.

This report describes and compares the drug- and crime-related policy restrictions contained in selected federal programs that provide assistance to low-income individuals and families: the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps), and the three primary federal housing assistance programs (the public housing program, the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program, and the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program). These programs were chosen because they serve many of the same families.

When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor

Individual Author: 
Wilson, William Julius

Wilson, one of our foremost authorities on race and poverty, challenges decades of liberal and conservative pieties to look squarely at the devastating effects that joblessness has had on our urban ghettos. Marshaling a vast array of data and the personal stories of hundreds of men and women, Wilson persuasively argues that problems endemic to America's inner cities--from fatherless households to drugs and violent crime--stem directly from the disappearance of blue-collar jobs in the wake of a globalized economy.

What strategies work for the hard-to-employ? Final results of the hard-to-employ demonstration and evaluation project and selected sites from the Employment Retention and Advancement Project

Individual Author: 
Butler, David
Alson, Julianna
Bloom, Dan
Deitch, Victoria
Hill, Aaron
Hsueh, JoAnn
Jacobs, Erin
Kim, Sue
McRoberts, Reanin
Redcross, Cindy

In the context of a public safety net focused on limiting dependency and encouraging participation in the labor market, policymakers and researchers are especially interested in individuals who face obstacles to finding and keeping jobs. The Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ (HtE) Demonstration and Evaluation Project was a 10-year study that evaluated innovative strategies aimed at improving employment and other outcomes for groups who face serious barriers to employment.

TANF recipients with barriers to employment

Individual Author: 
Bloom, Dan
Loprest, Pamela J.
Zedlewski, Sheila R.

Many parents receiving assistance from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) face serious barriers to employment. Sometimes called the “hard to employ,” these parents typically require enhanced assistance to prepare for, find, and keep jobs. Health issues and disability, substance abuse, criminal records, domestic violence, limited education, and responsibilities for disabled children or parents all stand in the way. Federal TANF rules influence state policies toward the hard to employ. Yet states vary considerably in approaches to serving this population. (author abstract)

Declining employment among young black less-educated men: The role of incarceration and child support

Individual Author: 
Holzer, Harry
Offner, Paul
Sorensen, Elaine

In this paper, we explore the continuing decline in employment and labor force participation of nonenrolled Black men between the ages of 16 and 34 who have a high school education or less in the 1980s and 1990s. We focus on two fairly new developments: (1) the dramatic growth in the number of young Black men who have been incarcerated and (2) strengthened enforcement of child support policies.

Transitional jobs: Background, program models, and evaluation evidence

Individual Author: 
Bloom, Dan

The budget for the U.S. Department of Labor for Fiscal Year 2010 includes a total of $45 million to support and study transitional jobs. This paper describes the origins of the transitional jobs models that are operating today, reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of this approach and other subsidized employment models, and offers some suggestions regarding the next steps for program design and research. The paper was produced for the U.S.

California’s job training, employment, and vocational education programs

Individual Author: 
Bugarin, Alicia

This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs. (publisher abstract)

Working dads: Final report on the Fathers at Work initiative

Individual Author: 
Spaulding, Shayne
Grossman, Jean Baldwin
Wallace, Dee

Presents findings from P/PV's evaluation of Fathers at Work, a national demonstration funded by the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, designed to help low-income noncustodial fathers increase their employment and earnings, become more involved in their children's lives, and provide them with more consistent financial support. The Fathers at Work programs offered a unique combination of job training and placement, child support and fatherhood services at six well-established community-based organizations in Chicago, IL; New York, NY; Philadelphia, PA; Richmond, CA; and Roanoke, VA.