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Children and Youth

5 things to know about the transition from foster care to adulthood

Individual Author: 
Connelly, Dana Dean
Jordan, Elizabeth

The transition from childhood to adulthood is a challenge in the best of circumstances. It takes a network of strong and stable connections with family, friends, and community to help young people learn and grow into healthy adults, and to support the incredible brain development that occurs during this time. But what about young people who have spent some or all of their childhood in foster care? Many of them lack these stable connections.

Resilience among children exposed to domestic violence: The role of risk and protective factors

Individual Author: 
Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia
Bogat, G. Anne
von Eye, Alexander
Levendosky, Alytia A.

Individual and family characteristics that predict resilience among children exposed to domestic violence (DV) were examined. Mother–child dyads (n = 190) were assessed when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. DV-exposed children were 3.7 times more likely than nonexposed children to develop internalizing or externalizing problems. However, 54% of DV-exposed children maintained positive adaptation and were characterized by easy temperament (odds ratio [OR] = .39, d = .52) and nondepressed mothers (OR = 1.14, d = .07), as compared to their nonresilient counterparts.

Risk and adversity, parenting quality, and children’s social-emotional adjustment in families experiencing homelessness

Individual Author: 
Labella, Madelyn H.
McCormick, Christopher M.
Narayan, Angela J.
Desjardins, Christopher D.
Masten, Ann S.

A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher–child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior.

Impact of family efficacy beliefs on quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life

Individual Author: 
Bandura, Albert
Caprara, Gian Vittorio
Barbaranelli, Claudio
Regalia, Camillo
Scabini, Eugenia

The present study tested with 142 families a structural model of the interplay of perceived dyadic and collective forms of efficacy within the interdependent family system, and how these different forms of efficacy are structurally related to quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life. Dyadic parent–child efficacy, dyadic spousal efficacy, and filial efficacy were linked to family satisfaction through the mediating impact of collective family efficacy.

Day-care participation as a protective factor in the cognitive development of low-income children

Individual Author: 
O'Brien Caughy, Margaret
DiPietro, Janet A.
Strobino, Donna M.

The impact of day-care participation during the first 3 years of life on the cognitive functioning of school age children was examined. 867 5- and 6-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who completed the 1986 assessment were included in the sample. The dependent measures were scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) subtests of mathematics and reading recognition.

Positive parenting, family cohesion, and child social competence among immigrant Latino families

Individual Author: 
Leidy, Melinda S.
Guerra, Nancy G.
Toro, Rosa I.

The relation between positive parenting, family cohesion, and child social competence was examined among Latino families (predominantly from Mexico) who were recent immigrants to the United States. A mixed method study was conducted, including both pre- and post-test self-reported surveys (9-month interval) and qualitative data from focus groups. A total of 282 parents and 282 children (ages 9–12) participated in the survey study.

Early-childhood poverty and adult attainment, behavior, and health

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg J.
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Kalil, Ariel

This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic conditions at the time of the birth, findings indicate statistically significant and, in some cases, quantitatively large detrimental effects of early poverty on a number of attainment-related outcomes (adult earnings and work hours).

How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children?

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg
Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith

Why parental socioeconomic status correlates strongly with various measures of child and adult achievement is an important and controversial research question. After summarizing findings from recent contributions to this literature, we conduct two sets of analyses using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Completed schooling and nonmarital childbearing are related to parental income during early and middle childhood, as well as during adolescence.

Supporting the development of self-regulation in young children: Tips for practitioners working with toddlers in classroom settings

Individual Author: 
Pahigiannis, K.
Rosanbalm, K.
Murray, D. W.

Toddlers are rapidly developing movement and language abilities that help them interact with their surroundings. They may go through changes from infant to toddler care settings, or from younger to older toddler childcare rooms, which bring new people, new schedules, and new expectations. Positive relationships with caregivers are essential for cultivating emerging self-regulation skills. This document provides tips to help caregivers use co-regulation to promote self-regulation skill development in toddlers. (Edited author introduction)

 

Supporting the development of self-regulation in young children: Tips for practitioners working with preschool children in classroom settings

Individual Author: 
Pahigiannis, K.
Rosanbalm, K.
Murray, D. W.

The preschool period in a child’s life is full of new experiences, new expectations, and new opportunities to build relationships. Children in this age group have great potential to develop their self-regulation skills with specific instruction, support, and scaffolding from caring adults.This document provides tips to help caregivers use co-regulation to promote self-regulation skill development in preschoolers. (Edited author introduction)