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Children and Youth

A year in Region XI Head Start: Children’s growth and development from the American Indian and Alaska Native Family and Child Experiences Survey 2015 (AI/AN FACES 2015)

Individual Author: 
Bernstein, Sara
Malone, Lizabeth
AI/AN FACES 2015 Workgroup

It is important for Head Start to have information about children’s and families’ strengths and needs over the course of the program year. We examine Region XI Head Start children’s growth in cognitive skills (in language, literacy, and mathematics), social-emotional skills, and executive function during the program year to learn about their progress toward being ready for school.

The role of licensing in supporting quality practices in early care and education

Individual Author: 
Maxwell, Kelly
Starr, Rebecca

Licensing is traditionally viewed as providing the foundation (or the floor) of quality in early care and education (ECE) settings. States and territories are responsible for licensing child care programs, and a license serves as permission to legally operate a child care program. The essential purpose of licensing is to provide basic protections to prevent harm to children.

The role of mindfulness in reducing the adverse effects childhood stress and trauma

Individual Author: 
Ortiz, Robin
Sibinga, Erica M.

Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes.

Health status of children enrolled in a family navigator program to eliminate intergenerational poverty

Individual Author: 
Schilling, Samantha
Jamison, Shaundreal
Wood, Charles
Perrin, Eliana
Jansen Austin, Coby
Sheridan, Juliet
Young, Allison
Burchinal, Margaret
Flower, Kori B.

In 2014, Family Success Alliance (FSA) was formed as a place-based initiative to build a pipeline of programs to reduce the impact of poverty on outcomes for children living in Orange County, North Carolina. In this study, FSA parents’ perception of child health, parent and child adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and resilience were obtained by parent interview. Receipt of recommended health services were abstracted from primary care medical records of FSA children. Correlation coefficients investigated relationships among health, ACEs, and resilience.

Poverty and academic achievement across the urban to rural landscape: Associations with community resources and stressors

Individual Author: 
Miller, Portia
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Coley, Rebekah Levine

Poor children begin school with fewer academic skills than their nonpoor peers, and these disparities translate into lower achievement, educational attainment, and economic stability in adulthood. Child poverty research traditionally focuses on urban or rural poor, but a shifting spatial orientation of poverty necessitates a richer examination of how urbanicity intersects with economic disadvantage.

Mental health problems in young children: The role of mothers' coping and parenting styles and characteristics of family functioning

Individual Author: 
Nikolaev, Evgeni L.
Baranova, Elvira A.
Petunova, Svetlana A.

The present study investigates the mother-related characteristics of family functioning that are associated with their children’s mental health problems. The sample embraced 194 young children with symptoms of mental and behavioral disorders and their mothers. The children were diagnosed during play therapy; the mothers were examined by using standardized interviews and questionnaires which measure coping and parenting styles.

Family wealth and parent-child relationships

Individual Author: 
Ramdahl, Mai Emilie
Jensen, Sofie Skjelstad
Borgund, Eleni
Samdal, Oddrun
Torsheim, Torbjørn

This study examined associations between self-reported family wealth and parent–child relationships, by contrasting three theoretical perspectives on the shape of the association. The study utilized data from the Norwegian part of the “Health behaviour in school-aged children study (HBSC) 2013/2014”, with a sample of 3383 children aged 11–15 years old. The shape of associations between family wealth and parent–child communication were tested using regression spline models with knots at 1 SD below mean family wealth and at 1 SD above mean family wealth.

Impact of neighborhood safety on the association between parental knowledge and delinquency

Individual Author: 
King, Yemimah A.
Fite, Paula J.
Poquiz, Jonathan L.

It is important to understand the role of sources of parental knowledge within the context of perceived neighborhood safety, which has clear implications for how parents should effectively gain knowledge of youth behavior depending on the perceived safety of the neighborhood in which they reside.

Family poverty, family processes and children’s preschool achievement: Understanding the unique role of fathers

Individual Author: 
Baker, Claire E.
Kainz, Kirsten L.
Reynolds, Elizabeth R.

Developmental research has highlighted the importance of fathers for children’s early academic success, and growing evidence suggests that children living in poverty may benefit the most from positive father involvement. Using a subsample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study examined direct and mediated pathways from family poverty to children’s preschool achievement.

Biological sensitivity to family income: Differential effects on early executive functioning

Individual Author: 
Obradovic, Jelena
Portilla, Ximena A.
Ballard, Parissa J.

The study examined how the interplay between children's cortisol response and family income is related to executive function (EF) skills. The sample included one hundred and two 5- to 6-year-olds (64% minority). EF skills were measured using laboratory tasks and observer ratings. Physiological reactivity was assessed via cortisol response during a laboratory visit. A consistent, positive association between family income and EF skills emerged only for children who showed high cortisol response, a marker of biological sensitivity to context.