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Trends in California poverty: 2011–2014

Individual Author: 
Wimer, Christopher
Kimberlin, Sara
Danielson, Caroline
Mattingly, Marybeth
Fisher, Jonathan
Bohn, Sarah

The purpose of this report is to describe recent trends in poverty in California. Throughout this report, we will feature a measure that is inspired by the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), as it improves on the Official Poverty Measure (OPM) in important ways. (Author abstract)

 

Taking care of mine: Can child support become a family-building institution?

Individual Author: 
Edin, Kathryn
Nelson, Timothy J.
Butler, Rachel
Francis, Robert

U.S. children are more likely to live apart from a biological parent than at any time in history. Although the Child Support Enforcement system has tremendous reach, its policies have not kept pace with significant economic, demographic, and cultural changes. Narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with 429 low-income noncustodial fathers suggests that the system faces a crisis of legitimacy. Visualization of language used to describe all forms child support show that the formal system is considered punitive and to lead to a loss of power and autonomy.

School readiness gains made by ethnically diverse children in poverty attending center-based childcare and public school pre-kindergarten programs

Individual Author: 
Winsler, Adam
Tran, Henry
Hartman, Suzanne C.
Madigan, Amy L.
Manfra, Louis
Bleiker, Charles

Although intensive early childhood interventions and high quality preschool programs have been shown to foster children's school readiness, little is known about the school readiness gains made by ethnically and linguistically diverse children in poverty receiving subsidies to attend center-based childcare or those in public school pre-kindergarten programs.

Recent trends in income, racial, and ethnic school readiness gaps at kindergarten entry

Individual Author: 
Reardon, Sean F.
Portilla, Ximena A.

Academic achievement gaps between high- and low-income students born in the 1990s were much larger than between cohorts born two decades earlier. Racial/ethnic achievement gaps declined during the same period. To determine whether these two trends have continued in more recent cohorts, we examine trends in several dimensions of school readiness, including academic achievement, self-control, externalizing behavior, and a measure of students’ approaches to learning, for cohorts born from the early 1990s to the 2000–2010 midperiod.

Father reentry and child outcomes

Individual Author: 
Craigie, Terry-Ann
Pratt, Eleanor
McDaniel, Marla

More than 2.7 million children have an incarcerated parent, and many more have experienced a parent’s incarceration at some point. Research finds that parental incarceration negatively affects children’s physical, mental, and emotional health. One might presume that child outcomes improve when a parent returns from incarceration, but the evidence shows that reentry can be difficult for parents and their children.

Income inequality and persistence of racial economic disparities

Individual Author: 
Manduca, Robert Allen

More than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act, black–white family income disparities in the United States remain almost exactly the same as what they were in 1968. This article argues that a key and underappreciated driver of the racial income gap has been the national trend of rising income inequality. From 1968 to 2016, black–white disparities in family income rank narrowed by almost one-third.

Effect of residential lead-hazard interventions on childhood blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral outcomes: A randomized clinical trial

Individual Author: 
Braun, Joseph M.
Hornung, Richard
Chen, Aimin
Dietrich, Kim N.
Jacobs, David E.
Jones, Robert
Khoury, Jane C.
Liddy-Hicks, Stacey
Morgan, Samantha
Baez Vanderbeek, Suzette
Xu, Yingying
Yolton, Kimberly
Lanphear, Bruce P.

Importance Childhood lead exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The effect of ar esidential lead hazard intervention on blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral development remains unknown.

Objective To determine wehther a comprehensive residential lead-exposure reduction intervention completed during pregnancy could decrease residential dust lead loadings, prevent elevated blood lead concentrations, and improve childhood neurobehavioral outcomes.

Racial differences in the effect of marriageable males on female family headship

Individual Author: 
Craigie, Terry-Ann
Myers Jr., Samuel L.
Darity Jr., William A.

Female family headship has strong implications for endemic poverty in the United States. Consequently, it is imperative to explore the chief factors that contribute to this problem. Departing from prior literature that places significant weight on welfare-incentive effects, our study highlights the role of male marriageability in explaining the prevalence of never-married female family headship for blacks and whites. Specifically, we examine racial differences in the effect of male marriageability on never-married female headship from 1980 to 2010.

Youth early employment and behavior problems: Human capital and social network pathways to adulthood

Individual Author: 
Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
Rauscher, Emily

We examine the relationship between early youth employment and behavior problems and ask whether this relationship differs by race, job quality, or work intensity. Drawing on Panel Study of Income Dynamics data, we depict the employment patterns of American youth aged 12 through 18 and test conflicting hypotheses about mediating mechanisms through which youth employment shapes children’s behavior. Results show that employment is associated with fewer behavior problems but only when the jobs offer opportunities for human capital development and only when working moderate hours.

Diversity and inclusion in apprenticeship expansion: Lessons from South Carolina

Individual Author: 
Kuehn, Daniel

This brief examines the effect of South Carolina’s “Apprenticeship Carolina” expansion initiative on the diversity of newly registered apprentice cohorts. Apprenticeship Carolina had no impact on people of color’s share of new apprenticeship positions, but dramatically increased women’s representation in apprenticeship. The growth in women’s participation is largely the result of the expansion of apprenticeship into occupations that traditionally employ women. These experiences are useful for guiding current and proposed federal expansion policies.