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The apprenticeship wage and participation gap

Individual Author: 
Hanks, Angela
McGrew, Annie
Zessoules, Daniella

The analysis in this issue brief examines apprenticeship programs over the past decade—from fiscal year 2008 through 2017—to observe gaps in participation and wages among women and people of color. In general, it finds that women remain deeply underrepresented in apprenticeship programs and that wages among women and black or African American apprentices are much lower than those of other apprentices. Even though these programs are intended and have the potential to develop the U.S.

Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

Individual Author: 
Rose, Theda
Joe, Sean
Shields, Joseph
Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health.

Intersection of living in a rural versus urban area and race/ethnicity in explaining access to health care in the United States

Individual Author: 
Caldwell, Julia T.
Ford, Chandra L.
Wallace, Steven P.
Wang, May C.
Takahashi, Lois M.

Objectives. To examine whether living in a rural versus urban area differentially exposes populations to social conditions associated with disparities in access to health care. Methods. We linked Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005–2010) data to geographic data from the American Community Survey (2005–2009) and Area Health Resource File (2010). We categorized census tracts as rural and urban by using the Rural–Urban Commuting Area Codes. Respondent sample sizes ranged from 49 839 to 105 306.

Racial and ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas

Individual Author: 
Caldwell, Julia T.
Ford, Chandra L.
Wallace, Steven P.
Wang, May C.
Takahashi, Lois M.

This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes.

Surveillance for health care access and health services use, adults aged 18–64 years — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2014

Individual Author: 
Okoro, Catherine A.
Zhao, Guixiang
Fox, Jared B.
Eke, Paul I.
Greenlund, Kurt J.
Town, Machell

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Data are collected from states, the District of Columbia, and participating U.S. territories on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, health care access, and use of clinical preventive services (CPS). An optional Health Care Access module was included in the 2014 BRFSS.

Health and social conditions of the poorest versus wealthiest counties in the United States

Individual Author: 
Egen, Olivia Lynn
Beatty, Kate
Blackley, David J.
Brown, Katie
Wykoff, Randy

OBJECTIVES: To more clearly articulate, and more graphically demonstrate, the impact of poverty on various health outcomes and social conditions by comparing the poorest counties to the richest counties in the United States and to other countries in the world. METHODS: We used 5-year averages for median household income to form the 3141 US counties into 50 new "states"-each representing 2% of the counties in the United States (62 or 63 counties each).

The 2017 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress

Individual Author: 
Henry, Meghan
Watt, Rian
Rosenthal, Lily
Shivji, Azim

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) releases the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR) in two parts. Part 1 provides Point-in- Time (PIT) estimates, offering a snapshot of homelessness—both sheltered and unsheltered— on a single night. The one-night counts are conducted during the last 10 days of January each year.

The 2017 KIDS COUNT data book: State trends in child well-being

Individual Author: 
Gutierrez, Florencia
Speer, Laura
Boughamer, Beau
Fox, Ryan
Hamilton, Lisa
Hodgins, John
Laracy, Michael
West, Norris
Cauthen, Nancy

The 2017 KIDS COUNT Data Book urges policymakers not to back away from targeted investments that help U.S. children become healthier, more likely to complete high school and better positioned to contribute to the nation’s economy as adults. The Data Book also shows the child poverty rate in 2015 continued to drop, landing at 21%. In addition, children experienced gains in reading proficiency and a significant increase in the number of kids with health insurance.

Healthy marriage-relationship education programming for adults as individuals: Findings from the STREAMS process study

Individual Author: 
Roby, Scott
Stanley, Scott
Johnson, Charisse
Friend, Daniel
Paulsell, Diane

This session, moderated by Charisse Johnson (Administration for Children and Families), featured findings from the process study of the Strengthening Relationship Education and Marriage Services (STREAMS) evaluation of two Healthy Marriage-Relationship Education (HMRE) programs: Career STREAMS in St. Louis, MO and MotherWise, in Denver, CO. After the presentations, Scott Roby (Public Strategies), a technical assistance provider and trainer on HMRE curricula, and Scott Stanley (University of Denver), a research professor and HMRE curriculum developer, responded to the study findings.