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Intersection of living in a rural versus urban area and race/ethnicity in explaining access to health care in the United States

Individual Author: 
Caldwell, Julia T.
Ford, Chandra L.
Wallace, Steven P.
Wang, May C.
Takahashi, Lois M.

Objectives. To examine whether living in a rural versus urban area differentially exposes populations to social conditions associated with disparities in access to health care. Methods. We linked Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005–2010) data to geographic data from the American Community Survey (2005–2009) and Area Health Resource File (2010). We categorized census tracts as rural and urban by using the Rural–Urban Commuting Area Codes. Respondent sample sizes ranged from 49 839 to 105 306.

Racial and ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas

Individual Author: 
Caldwell, Julia T.
Ford, Chandra L.
Wallace, Steven P.
Wang, May C.
Takahashi, Lois M.

This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes.

Health and social conditions of the poorest versus wealthiest counties in the United States

Individual Author: 
Egen, Olivia Lynn
Beatty, Kate
Blackley, David J.
Brown, Katie
Wykoff, Randy

OBJECTIVES: To more clearly articulate, and more graphically demonstrate, the impact of poverty on various health outcomes and social conditions by comparing the poorest counties to the richest counties in the United States and to other countries in the world. METHODS: We used 5-year averages for median household income to form the 3141 US counties into 50 new "states"-each representing 2% of the counties in the United States (62 or 63 counties each).

The 2017 KIDS COUNT data book: State trends in child well-being

Individual Author: 
Gutierrez, Florencia
Speer, Laura
Boughamer, Beau
Fox, Ryan
Hamilton, Lisa
Hodgins, John
Laracy, Michael
West, Norris
Cauthen, Nancy

The 2017 KIDS COUNT Data Book urges policymakers not to back away from targeted investments that help U.S. children become healthier, more likely to complete high school and better positioned to contribute to the nation’s economy as adults. The Data Book also shows the child poverty rate in 2015 continued to drop, landing at 21%. In addition, children experienced gains in reading proficiency and a significant increase in the number of kids with health insurance.

Hostility, relationship quality, and health among African American couples

Individual Author: 
Guyll, Max
Cutrona, Carolyn
Burzette, Rebecca
Russell, Daniel

This study investigated the association between hostility and health and whether it is moderated by the quality of an individual’s primary romantic relationship. Method: Longitudinal data were provided by 184 African Americans, including 166 women. Participants averaged 38 years old and were married or in long-term marriage like relationships. Hostility and relationship quality were measured at the first assessment. Hostility was based on participants’ responses to items tapping cynical attitudes about relationships.

The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples

Individual Author: 
Jackson, Grace L.
Trail, Thomas E.
Kennedy, David P.
Williamson, Hannah C.
Bradbury, Thomas N.
Karney, Benjamin R.

Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N=431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory.

The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples

Individual Author: 
Jackson, Grace L.
Trail, Thomas E.
Kennedy, David P.
Williamson, Hannah C.
Bradbury, Thomas N.
Karney, Benjamin R.

Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory.

Racial differences in pregnancy intention, reproductive coercion, and partner violence among family planning clients: A qualitative exploration

Individual Author: 
Holliday, Charvonne N.
Miller, Elizabeth
Decker, Michele R.
Burke, Jessica G.
Documet, Patricia I.
Borrero, Sonya B.
Silverman, Jay G.
Tancredi, Daniel J.
Ricci, Edmund
McCauley, Heather L.

Unintended pregnancy (UIP) is a persistent public health concern in the United States disproportionately experienced by racial/ethnic minorities and women of low socioeconomic status. UIP often occurs with experiences of reproductive coercion (RC) and intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the study was to qualitatively describe and compare contexts for UIP risk between low-income Black and White women with histories of IPV/RC.

Bridging the opportunity divide for low-income youth: Implementation and early impacts of the Year Up program

Individual Author: 
Fein, David
Hamadyk, Jill

This report assesses the implementation and early impacts of Year Up, a national sectoral training program for young adults aged 18-24. Year Up aims to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete training leading to employment in high-demand, well-paying occupations.

Evaluation of Raising Adolescent Families Together program: A medical home for adolescent mothers and their children

Individual Author: 
Cox, Joanne E.
Buman, Mathew P.
Woods, Elizabeth R.
Famakinwa, Olatokunbo
Harris, Sion Kim

Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes.

Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed.