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African American-Black

The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples

Individual Author: 
Jackson, Grace L.
Trail, Thomas E.
Kennedy, David P.
Williamson, Hannah C.
Bradbury, Thomas N.
Karney, Benjamin R.

Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory.

Racial differences in pregnancy intention, reproductive coercion, and partner violence among family planning clients: A qualitative exploration

Individual Author: 
Holliday, Charvonne N.
Miller, Elizabeth
Decker, Michele R.
Burke, Jessica G.
Documet, Patricia I.
Borrero, Sonya B.
Silverman, Jay G.
Tancredi, Daniel J.
Ricci, Edmund
McCauley, Heather L.

Unintended pregnancy (UIP) is a persistent public health concern in the United States disproportionately experienced by racial/ethnic minorities and women of low socioeconomic status. UIP often occurs with experiences of reproductive coercion (RC) and intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the study was to qualitatively describe and compare contexts for UIP risk between low-income Black and White women with histories of IPV/RC.

Bridging the opportunity divide for low-income youth: Implementation and early impacts of the Year Up program

Individual Author: 
Fein, David
Hamadyk, Jill

This report assesses the implementation and early impacts of Year Up, a national sectoral training program for young adults aged 18-24. Year Up aims to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete training leading to employment in high-demand, well-paying occupations.

Evaluation of Raising Adolescent Families Together program: A medical home for adolescent mothers and their children

Individual Author: 
Cox, Joanne E.
Buman, Mathew P.
Woods, Elizabeth R.
Famakinwa, Olatokunbo
Harris, Sion Kim

Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes.

Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed.

Employment and disconnection among teens and young adults: The role of place, race, and education

Individual Author: 
Ross, Martha
Svajlenka, Nichole Prchal

The following analysis and related interactive examine employment trends among teens aged 16–19 and young adults aged 20–24, and compares these groups with adults aged 25–54—those typically considered to be in their prime working years. School is likely to be teens’ primary activity until high school graduation, but early work experiences (part-time and in the summer) can provide valuable opportunities for teens to learn new skills, gain experience, expand their networks, and develop positive relationships with adults.

The great recession and recent employment trends among secondary students in the United States

Individual Author: 
Staff, Jeremy
Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick
Patrick, Megan E.
Schulenberg, John E.

The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students’ employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States.

Expanding economic opportunity for young men and boys of color through employment and training

Individual Author: 
Spaulding, Shayne
Lerman, Robert I.
Holzer, Harry
Eyster, Lauren

Young men of color have long experienced lower earnings and higher unemployment compared to young white men. Many factors have contributed to these negative outcomes: persistent discrimination, hiring practices of employers, geographic and social isolation, substandard secondary education, lack of career and postsecondary educational guidance, inadequate career and technical education, and higher incarceration rates. This paper focuses on promising strategies for improving the labor market outcomes of low-income young men of color.

Promoting social and economic mobility in Washington, DC: Challenges and choices for the new mayor

Individual Author: 
Acs, Gregory
Eyster, Lauren
Schwabish, Jonathan

As Mayor Bowser settles into her office, she leads a city that is growing more prosperous. Yet too many DC residents are not sharing in that prosperity. Since the last recession began in 2007, median income in DC has grown by three times the national average, reaching nearly $61,000 in 2013. Yet DC’s unemployment rate persistently remains about 1 percentage point higher than in the nation as a whole. Removing barriers to mobility and creating meaningful opportunities for all DC residents to prosper require various strategies.

Evaluating the effects of child care policies on children's cognitive development and maternal labor supply

Individual Author: 
Griffen, Andrew S.

To explore the role of child care policies in the development of early cognitive skills, this paper jointly estimates a cognitive achievement production function and a dynamic, discrete choice model of maternal labor supply and child care decisions. Using counterfactuals from the model, I investigate how the design of two child care programs, Head Start and child care subsidies, affects the formation of cognitive skills through maternal work and child care decisions.

Poverty as a predictor of 4-year-olds’ executive function: New perspectives on models of differential susceptibility

Individual Author: 
Raver, C. Cybele
Blair, Clancy
Willoughby, Michael

In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children’s performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability serves as a statistical moderator of the link between poverty-related risk and children’s executive functioning. Implications for models of ecology and biology in shaping the development of children’s self-regulation are discussed.