Since the 1960s, John Kain's theory of spatial mismatch has influenced policy responses to the poor employment prospects of low-income and minority residents of inner cities by aiming to connect them with suburban jobs. My literature review examines this policy legacy using what we now know about disadvantaged jobseekers' employment searches. Recent evaluations of poverty deconcentration and employment accessibility programs show that these programs have failed to improve employment outcomes significantly.
Taylor & Francis
Predictors of mastery among low-income mothers of children eligible for Early Head Start (N = 2093) were examined. Participants' levels of mastery were assessed approximately 14 months after the birth of their child. Mothers living in extreme poverty did not exhibit lower levels of mastery when compared to other mothers when controlling for other socioeconomic factors. African American mothers showed the highest levels of mastery, and single mothers showed lower levels of mastery than mothers who were married or living with the father of their child.
As an alternative to traditional public housing programs, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program has been the dominant federal affordable housing program in the US. However, we have empirically limited understanding as to whether the LIHTC program promotes locational options that offer better socioeconomic opportunities for low-income families. This paper examines the relationships between the spatial location of public housing and LIHTC households and sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhoods in Austin, Texas.
Despite their increasing numbers, divorced families with a noncustodial mother and a custodial father have received scant research attention. Our study attempts to provide some initial insight into the economic status of these families. Examining the child support obligation, we find that noncustodial mothers face a much smaller award than noncustodial fathers, both in terms of the absolute dollar amount of the award and as a percentage of the obligor's income.
Problem, research strategy, and findings: We evaluate the role of transportation in improving the employment outcomes of participants in the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) for Fair Housing Voucher Program, a 10-year demonstration project designed to enable low-income families to improve their outcomes by moving out of high-poverty neighborhoods. We use longitudinal data from the MTO program to assess the role of transportation—automobiles and improved access to public transit—in moving to, and maintaining, employment.
The United States is arguably one of the richest countries in the world. However, poverty is still an issue of great concern. This observation suggests the need for more innovative interventions to reduce severe need and create terms for meaningful participation of vulnerable individuals in economic, political, and social exchange. Using a sample of Individual Development Account (IDA) program participants (N=840) randomly assigned to a control and experimental group, we explore the relationship between participating in an IDA program and social inclusion.
This study estimates the effect of 'refundable' state Earned Income Tax Credits (EITCs) on child poverty from 1994 through 2003. Research results indicate that a refundable state EITC is associated with reductions in child poverty, holding all other variables constant. For example, states with refundable state EITCs have observed a 40% greater reduction in child poverty rates compared to states without refundable state EITCs. This study also discusses policy implications for implementing the 'refundable' state EITC. (Author abstract)
This study examined public coordination of community food systems in fifteen distressed New Jersey cities with unusually high unemployment rates, large immigrant populations, high levels of poverty and an extraordinary reliance on school nutrition programs. Using key informant interviews with municipal officials and calls to school districts and city departments, we found a large variation in the ability of these city governments to coordinate food assistance programs, provide information about food programs to people in need, and plan for expanded food market choices.
We study the efficacy of public and private food assistance in alleviating food shortages among poor households by jointly considering the effects of all major forms of domestic food assistance–the Food Stamp Program, WIC, and food pantries. The analyses are based on detailed data collected in 1993 from 398 low-income households in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. We examine the effect each of the widely available forms of food assistance has on helping poor households acquire enough resources potentially to meet basic nutritional requirements.
This study aims to assess availability, affordability, and accessibility of food items in a low-income Latino neighborhood within a small city using an on-site food store survey. Store locations were identified by on-site Global Positioning System. Results showed the Latino neighborhood had limited availability and above-average cost of high-fiber bread. Fresh vegetables were more expensive compared to the non-Latino neighborhood, and more stores in the Latino neighborhood participated in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Food Program.