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American Medical Association

Publisher ID: 

Prenatal risk factors and perinatal and postnatal outcomes associated wtih maternal opioid exposure in an urban, low-income multiethnic US population

Individual Author: 
Azuine, Romuladus E.
Ji, Yuelong
Chang, Hsing-Yuan
Kim, Yoona
Ji, Hongkai
DiBari, Jessica
Hong, Xiumei
Wang, Guoying
Singh, Gopal K.
Pearson, Colleen
Zuckerman, Barry
Surkan, Pamela J.
Wang, Xiaobin
Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking.
Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children.

Effects of ParentCorps in prekindergarten on child mental health and academic performance: Follow-up of a randomized clinical trial through 8 years of age

Individual Author: 
Brotman, Laurie Miller
Dawson-McClure, Spring
Kamboukos, Dimitra
Huang, Keng-Yen
Calzada, Esther J.
Goldfeld, Keith
Petkova, Eva

Importance  Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known.

Academic medical centers and equity in specialty care access for children

Individual Author: 
Bisgaier, Joanna
Polsky, Daniel
Rhodes, Karin V.

Objective: To test whether specialty clinics’ academic medical center (AMC) affiliation was associated with equity in scheduling appointments for children with public vs private insurance. Academic medical centers are safety-net providers of specialty medical care and it is unknown whether equitable access is afforded by AMCs across insurance conditions.

Design: Audit study data were linked to data describing audited clinics.

Setting: Specialty clinics serving children residing in Cook County, Illinois.

Association of childhood trauma exposure with adult psychiatric disorders and functional outcomes

Individual Author: 
Copeland, William E.
Shanahan, Lilly
Hinesley, Jennifer
Chan, Robin F.
Aberg, Karolina A.
Fairbank, John A.
van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.
Costello, E. Jane

IMPORTANCE Being exposed to trauma is a common childhood experience associated with symptoms and impairments in childhood.

OBJECTIVE To assess the association between cumulative childhood trauma exposure and adult psychiatric and functional outcomes.

Association of Medicaid expansion with access to rehabilitative care in adult trauma patients

Individual Author: 
Zogg, Cheryl K.
Scott, John W.
Metcalfe, David
Gluck, Abbe R.
Curfman, Gregory D.
Davis, Kimberly A.
Dimick, Justin B.
Haider, Adil H.

Importance Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability for patients of all ages, many of whom are also among the most likely to be uninsured. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was intended to improve access to care through improvements in insurance. However, despite nationally reported changes in the payer mix of patients, the extent of the law’s impact on insurance coverage among trauma patients is unknown, as is its success in improving trauma outcomes and promoting increased access to rehabilitation.

Association of childhood blood lead levels with criminal offending

Individual Author: 
Beckley, Amber L.
Caspi, Avshalom
Broadbent, Jonathan
Harrington, Honalee
Houts, Renate M.
Poulton, Richie
Ramrakha, Sandhya
Reuben, Aaron
Moffitt, Terrie E.

Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. 

Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

Individual Author: 
Reuben, Aaron
Caspi, Avshalom
Belsky, Daniel W.
Broadbent, Jonathan
Harrington, Honalee
Sugden, Karen
Houts, Renate M.
Ramrakha, Sandhya
Moffitt, Terrie E.
Poulton, Richie

Importance Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain.

Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife.

Effect of residential lead-hazard interventions on childhood blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral outcomes: A randomized clinical trial

Individual Author: 
Braun, Joseph M.
Hornung, Richard
Chen, Aimin
Dietrich, Kim N.
Jacobs, David E.
Jones, Robert
Khoury, Jane C.
Liddy-Hicks, Stacey
Morgan, Samantha
Baez Vanderbeek, Suzette
Xu, Yingying
Yolton, Kimberly
Lanphear, Bruce P.

Importance Childhood lead exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The effect of ar esidential lead hazard intervention on blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral development remains unknown.

Objective To determine wehther a comprehensive residential lead-exposure reduction intervention completed during pregnancy could decrease residential dust lead loadings, prevent elevated blood lead concentrations, and improve childhood neurobehavioral outcomes.

Effect of greening vacant land on mental health of community-dwelling adults: A cluster randomized trial

Individual Author: 
South, Eugenia C.
Hohl, Bernadette C.
Kondo, Michelle C.
MacDonald, John M.
Branas, Charles C.

Importance Neighborhood physical conditions have been associated with mental illness and may partially explain persistent socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health.

Objective To evaluate whether interventions to green vacant urban land can improve self-reported mental health.

Comparison of health, development, maternal bonding, and poverty among children born after denial of abortion vs after pregnancies subsequent to an abortion

Individual Author: 
Foster, Diana Greene
Biggs, M. Antonia
Raifman, Sarah
Gipson, Jessica
Kimport, Katrina
Rocca, Corinne H.

Importance  Evidence indicates that there are potential health, development, and maternal bonding consequences for children born from unwanted pregnancies.

Objective  To examine the association of women receiving or being denied a wanted abortion with their children’s health and well-being.