American Medical Association
Importance Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known.
Objective: To test whether specialty clinics’ academic medical center (AMC) affiliation was associated with equity in scheduling appointments for children with public vs private insurance. Academic medical centers are safety-net providers of specialty medical care and it is unknown whether equitable access is afforded by AMCs across insurance conditions.
Design: Audit study data were linked to data describing audited clinics.
Setting: Specialty clinics serving children residing in Cook County, Illinois.
IMPORTANCE Being exposed to trauma is a common childhood experience associated with symptoms and impairments in childhood.
OBJECTIVE To assess the association between cumulative childhood trauma exposure and adult psychiatric and functional outcomes.
Importance Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability for patients of all ages, many of whom are also among the most likely to be uninsured. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was intended to improve access to care through improvements in insurance. However, despite nationally reported changes in the payer mix of patients, the extent of the law’s impact on insurance coverage among trauma patients is unknown, as is its success in improving trauma outcomes and promoting increased access to rehabilitation.
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending.
Importance Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain.
Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife.
Importance Childhood lead exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The effect of ar esidential lead hazard intervention on blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral development remains unknown.
Objective To determine wehther a comprehensive residential lead-exposure reduction intervention completed during pregnancy could decrease residential dust lead loadings, prevent elevated blood lead concentrations, and improve childhood neurobehavioral outcomes.
Importance Neighborhood physical conditions have been associated with mental illness and may partially explain persistent socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health.
Objective To evaluate whether interventions to green vacant urban land can improve self-reported mental health.
Importance Evidence indicates that there are potential health, development, and maternal bonding consequences for children born from unwanted pregnancies.
Objective To examine the association of women receiving or being denied a wanted abortion with their children’s health and well-being.