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Employment and health among low-income adults and their children: A review of the literature

Individual Author: 
Sama-Miller, Emily
Kleinman, Rebecca
Timmins, Lori
Dahlen, Heather

Decades of research have produced convincing evidence of a strong relationship between having a job and enjoying good health. But does employment cause health outcomes or does health cause employment outcomes? If employment can cause health outcomes, does working make health better or worse?

Supporting employees and maximizing profit: The case for workforce development focused on self-regulation

Individual Author: 
Kauff, Jacqueline F.

This brief was developed under the Goal-Oriented Adult Learning in Self-Sufficiency (GOALS) project on behalf of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE). Under this project, Mathematica Policy Research explored how emerging insights from psychology, neuroscience, behavioral science, and goal achievement can inform workforce development programs for lowincome adults. Several project activities contributed to the development of this brief, including

Improving employment outcomes: Using innovative goal-oriented strategies in TANF programs

Individual Author: 
Derr, Michelle
McCay, Jonathan
Kauff, Jacqueline F.

New evidence from neuroscience, psychology, and other behavioral sciences suggests that TANF programs may be able to improve participants’ outcomes by applying the science of self-regulation. Self-regulation refers to a foundational set of skills and personality factors that enable people to control their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. It is what helps people set goals, make plans, solve problems, reason, organize, prioritize, initiate tasks, manage time, and persist in and monitor their actions.

Implementation and relative impacts of two job search assistance programs in New York City

Individual Author: 
Martinson, Karin
Harvill, Eleanor
Litwok, Daniel
Schwartz, Deena
De La Rosa, Siobhan Mills
Saunders, Correne
Bell, Stephen

This report describes the implementation and impact study findings from an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of two approaches to providing job search assistance (JSA) to cash assistance applicants in New York City. From 2015 to 2016, the New York City Department of Social Services/Human Resources Administration administered two JSA programs for “job ready” cash assistance applicants: Back to Work (known as B2W, the pre-existing program) and Independent Job Search (IJS, a new program).

Start Smart: Using behavioral strategies to increase initial child support payments in Texas

Individual Author: 
Farrell, Mary
Morrison, Carly

The Behavioral Interventions for Child Support Services (BICS) project aims to improve federally funded child support services by increasing program efficiency, developing interventions informed by behavioral science, and building a culture of rapid-cycle evaluation. The Texas Office of the Attorney General (OAG) and the BICS team developed an intervention designed to increase the percentage of employed parents who made payments during the first months after an order was established.

Understanding the link between racial trauma and substance use among American Indians

Individual Author: 
Skewes, Monica C.
Blume, Arthur W.

Historians and scholars from various disciplines have documented the pervasive influence of racism on American society and culture, including effects on the health and well-being of American Indian (AI) people. Among the many health problems affected by racial discrimination and oppression, both historical and current, are substance use disorders. Epidemiological studies have documented greater drug and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among AI/AN Alaska Natives compared to other ethnic groups, and culturally appropriate, effective interventions are sorely needed.

Acceptability of family violence: Underlying ties between intimate partner violence and child abuse

Individual Author: 
Gracia, Enrique
Rodriguez, Christina M.
Martín-Fernández, Manuel
Lila, Marisol

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent–child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships.

5 things to know about the transition from foster care to adulthood

Individual Author: 
Connelly, Dana Dean
Jordan, Elizabeth

The transition from childhood to adulthood is a challenge in the best of circumstances. It takes a network of strong and stable connections with family, friends, and community to help young people learn and grow into healthy adults, and to support the incredible brain development that occurs during this time. But what about young people who have spent some or all of their childhood in foster care? Many of them lack these stable connections.

Resilience among children exposed to domestic violence: The role of risk and protective factors

Individual Author: 
Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia
Bogat, G. Anne
von Eye, Alexander
Levendosky, Alytia A.

Individual and family characteristics that predict resilience among children exposed to domestic violence (DV) were examined. Mother–child dyads (n = 190) were assessed when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. DV-exposed children were 3.7 times more likely than nonexposed children to develop internalizing or externalizing problems. However, 54% of DV-exposed children maintained positive adaptation and were characterized by easy temperament (odds ratio [OR] = .39, d = .52) and nondepressed mothers (OR = 1.14, d = .07), as compared to their nonresilient counterparts.

Risk and adversity, parenting quality, and children’s social-emotional adjustment in families experiencing homelessness

Individual Author: 
Labella, Madelyn H.
McCormick, Christopher M.
Narayan, Angela J.
Desjardins, Christopher D.
Masten, Ann S.

A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher–child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior.