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America's child care deserts in 2018

Individual Author: 
Malik, Rasheed
Hamm, Katie
Schochet, Leila
Novoa, Cristina
Workman, Simon
Jessen-Howard, Steven

For this report, the Center for American Progress collected and analyzed data on the location and capacity of licensed or registered child care providers in every state and Washington, D.C. These data were synthesized with estimates of the population, family income, and labor force participation rates in every one of the country’s 73,057 census tracts. This original and comprehensive analysis of child care supply at the census tract level finds that 51 percent of Americans live in child care deserts.

How do sprawl and inequality affect well-being in American cities?

Individual Author: 
Lee, Wen Hao
Ambrey, Christopher
Pojani, Dorina

This study investigates whether income inequality is related to sprawl and wellbeing in American cities. The results do not provide evidence to support the role of income inequality as a mediator of the link between sprawl and well-being. Instead, the results tell a more nuanced story. Specifically, they indicate that consistent with a priori expectations, lower levels of sprawl are, on average, associated with lower levels of income inequality. Additionally, lower levels of sprawl correspond to higher levels of financial well-being.

Integration of the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model across primary care settings

Individual Author: 
Eismann, Emily A.
Theuerling, Jack
Maguire, Sabine
Hente, Elizabeth A.
Shapiro, Robert A.

This project sought to assess the generalizability, barriers, and facilitators of implementing the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model for addressing psychosocial risk factors for maltreatment across multiple primary care settings, including a pediatric practice, federally qualified health center, and family medicine practice. The SEEK model includes screening caregivers for psychosocial risk factors at well-child visits age 0 to 5 years, brief intervention incorporating principles of motivational interviewing to engage caregivers, and referral to treatment.

Disseminating a parenting intervention in the community: Experiences from a multi-site-evaluation

Individual Author: 
Maupin, Angela N.
Samuel, Emily
Nappi, Susan M.
Heath, Jennifer M.
Smith, Megan V.

Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) is a widely used parenting intervention that is gaining popularity globally as it is currently being delivered across several continents. Despite the global uptake of COS-P, there is limited research on its effectiveness with considerable variability in its delivery. Here we present a multi-site evaluation of the group delivery of COS-P to under-resourced mothers (n = 131 enrolled) in an urban community as facilitated by community-based providers (n = 12) from community sites (n = 6) that provide maternal and child services.

Understanding barriers to initial treatment engagement among underserved families seeking mental health services

Individual Author: 
Ofonedu, Mirian E.
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.
Budhathoki, Chakra
Gross, Deborah A.

This mixed method study examined factors associated with parents not attending their child’s mental health treatment after initially seeking help for their 2–5 year old child. It was part of a larger study comparing two evidence-based treatments among low-income racial/ethnic minority families seeking child mental health services. Of 123 parents who initiated mental health treatment (71 % African American or multi-racial; 97.6 % low-income), 36 (29.3 %) never attended their child’s first treatment session.

Early math trajectories: Low-income children’s mathematics knowledge from ages 4 to 11

Individual Author: 
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
Hofer, Kerry G.
Fyfe, Emily R.
Farran, Dale C.

Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement.

Child care choices and children’s cognitive achievement: The case of single mothers

Individual Author: 
Bernal, Raquel
Keane, Michael P.

We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as instruments to estimate child cognitive ability production functions.

How far Americans live from the closest hospital differs by community type

Individual Author: 
Lam, Onyi
Broderick, Brian
Toor, Skye

Rural Americans are more likely than people in urban and suburban areas to say access to good doctors and hospitals is a major problem in their community. Nearly a quarter (23%) of Americans in rural areas say this, compared with 18% of urbanites and 9% of suburbanites, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted earlier this year. (Edited author introduction)

Access in Brief: Rural and Urban Health Care

Individual Author: 
Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission

Using data combined from the 2013–2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this brief examines characteristics of individuals with Medicaid coverage—children and adults—in rural areas, as well as their access to care and use of services, comparing their experience to their privately insured and uninsured counterparts. We also compare access and use between Medicaid beneficiaries in urban and rural areas, and by disability. (Edited author introduction)

 

Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities

Individual Author: 
Brotman, Laurie M.
Calzada, Esther
Huang, Keng-Yen
Kingston, Sharon
Dawson-McClure, Spring
Kamboukos, Dimitra
Rosenfelt, Amanda
Schwab, Amihai
Petkova, Eva

This study examines the efficacy of ParentCorps among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. ParentCorps includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health professionals. ParentCorps resulted in significant benefits on effective parenting practices and teacher ratings of child behavior problems in school.