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The challenge of repeating success in a changing world: Final report on the Center for Employment Training Replication Sites

Individual Author: 
Miller, Cynthia
Bos, Johannes
Porter, Kristin
Tseng, Fannie M.
Abe, Yasuyo

The Center for Employment Training (CET), headquartered in San Jose, California, gained the attention of policymakers in the early 1990s, when it proved to be the only training program in two major evaluations (one of which, JOBSTART, targeted disadvantaged youth) to produce large positive effects on participants’ employment and earnings. Such documented success is rare among employment and training programs in general, but it is especially unusual among programs serving youth.

Results from the Post-Assistance Self-Sufficiency (PASS) program in Riverside, California: The Employment Retention and Advancement project

Individual Author: 
Navarro, David
van Dok, Mark
Hendra, Richard

Although much is known about how to help welfare recipients find jobs, little is known about how to help them and other low-wage workers keep jobs or advance in the labor market. This report presents an assessment of the implementation and effects at the two-year follow-up point of a program in Riverside County, California, that aimed to promote job retention and advancement among employed individuals who recently left the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the cash welfare program that mainly serves single mothers and their children.

How effective are different approaches aiming to increase employment retention and advancement? Final impacts for twelve models

Individual Author: 
Hendra, Richard
Dillman, Keri-Nicole
Hamilton, Gayle
Lundquist, Erika
Martinson, Karin
Wavelet, Melissa
Hill, Aaron
Williams, Sonya

Research completed since the 1980s has yielded substantial knowledge about how to help welfare recipients and other low-income individuals prepare for and find jobs. Many participants in these successful job preparation and placement programs, however, ended up in unstable, low-paying jobs, and little was known about how to effectively help them keep employment and advance in their jobs.

The Pregnancy Assistance Fund: Launching programs to support expectant and parenting youth

Individual Author: 
Person, Ann E.
Clary, Elizabeth
Zief, Susan
Adamek, Katie
Caplan, Valerie
Worthington, Julie

This report is the first systematic description of the Pregnancy Assistance Fund (PAF) grant program’s efforts to support expectant and parenting youth. It examines early grant implementation among the 17 states and Indian tribes awarded PAF grants in 2013. The study team gathered and analyzed data from two sources: (1) a standardized review of grant applications, and (2) telephone interviews with administrators representing the 17 grantees.

Getting a job is only half the battle: Maternal job loss and child classroom behavior in low-income families

Individual Author: 
Hill, Heather D.
Morris, Pamela A.
Castells, Nina
Walker, Jessica T.

This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity.

Effects of welfare and antipoverty programs on participants’ children

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg J.
Gennetian, Lisa
Morris, Pamela

This article contributes to the literature on parental self-sufficiency and child well-being in two ways. First, we bring a novel interdisciplinary perspective to formulating hypotheses about the pathways by which policy-induced changes in the environments in which children are embedded, both within and outside the home, facilitate or harm children’s development. These hypotheses help to organize the contradictory assertions regarding child impacts that have surrounded the debate over welfare reform.

Barriers to employment for out-of-school youth: Evidence from a sample of recent CET applicants

Individual Author: 
Miller, Cynthia
Porter, Kristin E.

This working paper examines employment and earnings over a four-year period for a group of disadvantaged out-of-school youth who entered the Evaluation of the Center for Employment Training (CET) Replication Sites between 1995 and 1999. It assesses the importance of three key factors as barriers to employment: lack of a high school diploma, having children, and having an arrest record.

Working with disadvantaged youth: Thirty-month findings from the evaluation of the Center for Employment Training replication sites

Individual Author: 
Miller, Cynthia
Bos, Johannes
Porter, Kristin
Tseng, Fannie M.
Doolittle, Fred
Goldsmith, Deana
Vencill, Mary P.

Young people who lack postsecondary education or vocational credentials face an uphill battle in the competition for jobs. Two prior studies found that the services of the Center for Employment Training (CET) in San Jose, California, significantly increased low-income youths’ and single-mothers’ chances of finding employment and also raised their earnings.

Evaluation of the Center for Employment Training replication sites: Interim report

Individual Author: 
Walsh, Stephen
Goldsmith, Deana
Abe, Yasuyo
Cann, Andrea

The Evaluation of the CET Replication Sites has its origins in the remarkable performance of a single employment and training program: the Center for Employment Training. CET is a community-based employment and training organization with headquarters in San Jose, California. CET received extensive attention in the early 1990s through the involvement of its San Jose headquarters in two major studies of employment and training programs for disadvantaged individuals.

Sustained employment and earnings growth: New experimental evidence on financial work incentives and pre-employment services

Individual Author: 
Michalopoulos, Charles

We know how to get low-income people to go to work: build a strong and growing economy filled with jobs, make work pay through generous tax credits and welfare programs that allow working people to keep more of their benefits, and implement programs with employment and training services and time-limited welfare benefits to encourage people to work. However, we know little about the types of policies that will help people stay employed and increase their earnings over time.