In 2010, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services awarded the first round of five-year grants from the Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG 1.0) Program to 32 organizations in 23 states; five were tribal organizations. The purpose of the HPOG Program is to provide education and training to Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients and other low-income individuals for occupations in the healthcare field that pay well and are expected to either experience labor shortages or be in high demand.
Using longitudinal data across eight years, this study examined how parents’ familism values in early adolescence predicted youths’ depressive symptoms in young adulthood via youths’ familism values and family time. We examined these processes among 246 Mexican-origin families using interview and phone-diary data. Findings revealed that fathers’ familism values predicted male and female youths’ familism values in middle adolescence. For female youth only, fathers’ familism values also predicted youths’ family time in late adolescence.
It is important to understand the role of sources of parental knowledge within the context of perceived neighborhood safety, which has clear implications for how parents should effectively gain knowledge of youth behavior depending on the perceived safety of the neighborhood in which they reside.
Developmental research has highlighted the importance of fathers for children’s early academic success, and growing evidence suggests that children living in poverty may benefit the most from positive father involvement. Using a subsample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study examined direct and mediated pathways from family poverty to children’s preschool achievement.
The child support program promotes parental responsibility, so that children receive support from both parents even when they live in separate households. While this program aims to reduce poverty, the program has financially burdensome consequences for low income, noncustodial parents who have experienced incarceration. Noncustodial parents may accrue arrears when they are unable to work due to incarceration. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and child support arrears among low-income fathers.
Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers’ evening and weekend shifts for youths’ time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts.
This is a presentation on What Makes a Difference? Early Head Start, Head Start, and More: The Cumulative Effects of Program Participation, Birth to 5, on Children and Families Living in Poverty from Head Start's Eighth National Research Conference. (Author introduction)
Head Start has focused on children living in poor families since the program’s inception in 1965. During the past decade the population of children eligible by income status increased: nationwide, 19% of children live in poor families and 41% live in low-income families (families with less income than twice the federal poverty threshold). Furthermore, poverty rates are highest among the young children of the U.S., with 44% of those under 6 now living in low-income families (National Center for Children in Poverty, Nov. 2009).
Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses.
This study examined the relationships between unemployment experience and recurrent unemployment and the four types of material hardships faced by older adults ages 50 to 61 since the Great Recession. Older workers face severe financial conditions when they lose a job, because they are less likely than younger workers to be reemployed and lack various public supports during unemployment. However, little is known about older workers’ struggles to maintain economic well-being following job loss.