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Public health surveillance of prenatal opioid exposure in mothers and infants

Individual Author: 
Honein, Margaret A.
Boyle, Coleen
Redfield, Robert R.

The US opioid crisis is the public health emergency of our time and requires urgent public health action to monitor and protect the most vulnerable Americans. We have witnessed a startling death toll in 2017 with 70 237 drug overdose deaths in the United States, of which two-thirds involved opioids. The devastating consequences of this epidemic for mothers and infants have received less attention.

The role of child support debt on the development of mental health problems among nonresident fathers

Individual Author: 
Um, Hyunjoon

Using the first five waves of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this research examines whether nonresident fathers who owe child support arrears are at risk for the development of depression and alcohol abuse problems. To attenuate a potential omitted variable bias, I controlled for fathers’ previous mental health status by including a lagged dependent variable as a covariate. As a robustness check, I used an instrumental variable approach to correct for endogeneity and measurement error associated with mothers’ report of fathers’ child support arrears.

Can minimum wage increases lead to benefit cliffs? A closer look at SNAP, CHIP, Medicaid, and CCDF eligibility requirements

Individual Author: 
Hartig, Seth

This presentation was given at the 57th National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) Workshop in 2019. The presentation provides an overview of the perils of food assistance and other social services benefits cliffs, as well as the results of a study on the effects of minimum wage and inflation on benefit limits. Discrepencies between market rates and subsidies for food, child care, and other needs can cause families to face severe financial circumstances when they reach sharp benefit limits.

America's child care deserts in 2018

Individual Author: 
Malik, Rasheed
Hamm, Katie
Schochet, Leila
Novoa, Cristina
Workman, Simon
Jessen-Howard, Steven

For this report, the Center for American Progress collected and analyzed data on the location and capacity of licensed or registered child care providers in every state and Washington, D.C. These data were synthesized with estimates of the population, family income, and labor force participation rates in every one of the country’s 73,057 census tracts. This original and comprehensive analysis of child care supply at the census tract level finds that 51 percent of Americans live in child care deserts.

How do sprawl and inequality affect well-being in American cities?

Individual Author: 
Lee, Wen Hao
Ambrey, Christopher
Pojani, Dorina

This study investigates whether income inequality is related to sprawl and wellbeing in American cities. The results do not provide evidence to support the role of income inequality as a mediator of the link between sprawl and well-being. Instead, the results tell a more nuanced story. Specifically, they indicate that consistent with a priori expectations, lower levels of sprawl are, on average, associated with lower levels of income inequality. Additionally, lower levels of sprawl correspond to higher levels of financial well-being.

Employment coaching: Working with low-income populations to use self-regulation skills to achieve employment goals

Individual Author: 
Joyce, Kristen
McConnell, Sheena

New research has led policymakers and researchers to argue that some people might not achieve economic independence in part because of difficulty applying the self-regulation skills needed to get, keep, and advance in a job (Pavetti 2018; Cavadel et al. 2017). These self-regulation skills—sometimes referred to as soft skills or executive functioning skills—include the ability to finish tasks, stay organized, and control emotions.

Long-term effects of parenting-focused preventive interventions to promote resilience of children and adolescents

Individual Author: 
Sandler, Irwin
Ingram, Alexandra
Wolchik, Sharlene
Tein, Jenn-Yun
Winslow, Emily

In this article, we address three questions concerning the long-term effects of parenting-focused preventive interventions: 1) Do prevention programs promote effective parenting in families facing normative stressors as well as those facing frequent adversity? 2) Do parenting programs prevent children’s long-term problems? 3) Do changes in parenting mediate long-term effects of programs? We address these questions by summarizing evidence from 22 programs with randomized trials and followups of three years or longer.

Resilience in children: Developmental perspectives

Individual Author: 
Masten, Ann S.
Barnes, Andrew J.

Advances in developmental resilience science are highlighted with commentary on implications for pediatric systems that aspire to promote healthy development over the life course. Resilience science is surging along with growing concerns about the consequences of adverse childhood experiences on lifelong development. Resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten the function, survival, or future development of the system.

Resilience of children with refugee statuses: A research review

Individual Author: 
Pieloch, Kerrie A.
Marks, Amy K.
McCullough, Mary Beth

Over the past several decades, an increasing number of refugee children and families have involuntarily migrated to countries around the world to seek safety and refuge. As the refugee population increases, it is becoming more important to understand factors that promote and foster resilience among refugee youth. The present review examines the past 20 years of resilience research with refugee children to identify individual, family, school, community, and societal factors fostering resilience.

Strong at the broken places: The resiliency of low-income parents

Individual Author: 
Wilson-Simmons, Renée
Jiang, Yang
Aratani, Yumiko

Despite the multitude of obstacles that low-income parents face, many of them succeed in helping their children flourish. They raise children who possess the social-emotional competence needed to develop and keep friendships; establish good relationships with parents, teachers, and other adults; and experience a range of achievements that contribute to their selfconfidence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.