Decades of research have produced convincing evidence of a strong relationship between having a job and enjoying good health. But does employment cause health outcomes or does health cause employment outcomes? If employment can cause health outcomes, does working make health better or worse?
This brief was developed under the Goal-Oriented Adult Learning in Self-Sufficiency (GOALS) project on behalf of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE). Under this project, Mathematica Policy Research explored how emerging insights from psychology, neuroscience, behavioral science, and goal achievement can inform workforce development programs for lowincome adults. Several project activities contributed to the development of this brief, including
Historians and scholars from various disciplines have documented the pervasive influence of racism on American society and culture, including effects on the health and well-being of American Indian (AI) people. Among the many health problems affected by racial discrimination and oppression, both historical and current, are substance use disorders. Epidemiological studies have documented greater drug and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among AI/AN Alaska Natives compared to other ethnic groups, and culturally appropriate, effective interventions are sorely needed.
The transition from childhood to adulthood is a challenge in the best of circumstances. It takes a network of strong and stable connections with family, friends, and community to help young people learn and grow into healthy adults, and to support the incredible brain development that occurs during this time. But what about young people who have spent some or all of their childhood in foster care? Many of them lack these stable connections.
Individual and family characteristics that predict resilience among children exposed to domestic violence (DV) were examined. Mother–child dyads (n = 190) were assessed when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. DV-exposed children were 3.7 times more likely than nonexposed children to develop internalizing or externalizing problems. However, 54% of DV-exposed children maintained positive adaptation and were characterized by easy temperament (odds ratio [OR] = .39, d = .52) and nondepressed mothers (OR = 1.14, d = .07), as compared to their nonresilient counterparts.
A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher–child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior.
The impact of day-care participation during the first 3 years of life on the cognitive functioning of school age children was examined. 867 5- and 6-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who completed the 1986 assessment were included in the sample. The dependent measures were scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) subtests of mathematics and reading recognition.
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic conditions at the time of the birth, findings indicate statistically significant and, in some cases, quantitatively large detrimental effects of early poverty on a number of attainment-related outcomes (adult earnings and work hours).
Why parental socioeconomic status correlates strongly with various measures of child and adult achievement is an important and controversial research question. After summarizing findings from recent contributions to this literature, we conduct two sets of analyses using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Completed schooling and nonmarital childbearing are related to parental income during early and middle childhood, as well as during adolescence.
Toddlers are rapidly developing movement and language abilities that help them interact with their surroundings. They may go through changes from infant to toddler care settings, or from younger to older toddler childcare rooms, which bring new people, new schedules, and new expectations. Positive relationships with caregivers are essential for cultivating emerging self-regulation skills. This document provides tips to help caregivers use co-regulation to promote self-regulation skill development in toddlers. (Edited author introduction)