The voluminous literature on minimum wages offers little consensus on the extent to which a wage floor impacts employment. We argue that the minimum wage will impact employment over time, through changes in growth rather than an immediate drop in relative employment levels. We show that commonly-used specifications in this literature, especially those that include state-specific time trends, will not accurately capture these effects. Using three separate state panels of administrative employment data, we find that the minimum wage reduces job growth over a period of several years.
Sector partnerships are a proven strategy for helping workers prepare for middle-skill jobs and helping employers find skilled workers. This update of National Skills Coalition’s (NSC) fifty-state scan of sector partnership policies shows that state support for sector partnerships is rapidly growing. This scan finds that thirty-two states have policies in place to support local sector partnerships, an increase of eleven states from our previous scan conducted two years ago.
Career pathways help people upgrade their skills and advance to better jobs over time through a stackable set of education and training steps and credentials within a particular industry. States and localities have increasingly adopted the career pathways framework to better connect previously “siloed” education and training services, strengthen links to employer needs, and support participant success.
The mathematics of poverty suggest that family composition changes may influence poverty rates and, in particular, that the addition of a new child increases estimated family expenses and correspondingly the family’s poverty threshold. This analysis of 2015 Current Population Survey data finds that those families more likely to live in poverty—Black and Hispanic families, families with children, less-educated families, and those living in more rural or highly urban environments—are at heightened risk of falling into poverty with an additional child. (Author abstract)
The Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program is a $2 billion federal workforce investment aimed at helping community colleges across the nation increase their capacity to provide education and training programs for in-demand jobs. The US Department of Labor (DOL) administers the seven year grant program in partnership with the US Department of Education. This brief presents preliminary results on key outcomes and characteristics of grant-funded program participants from the first four years of TAACCCT.
The Revised Career Pathways Toolkit: A Guide for System Development features six key elements of career pathways that help to guide local and state teams through the essential components necessary for developing a comprehensive career pathways system. The components under each element are not sequential and may occur in any order. Likewise, multiple partners can engage in the components simultaneously to carry out the mission of the career pathways system. The six elements are:
The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) was enacted on July 22, 2014. WIOA calls for cross-system alignment; education and training that is focused on the needs of high-demand industry sectors and occupations; regional collaboration focused on the skill needs of regional economies; and the establishment of career pathways systems that make it easier for all Americans to attain the skills and credentials needed for family-supporting jobs and careers.
Career pathways systems provide a framework for organizing and formally aligning the education, workforce, and supportive services needed by a wide range of individuals to attain the credentials required for family-supporting careers. This paper provides a context for the increased attention that career pathways approaches have received in recent years—by examining the evolution and efficacy of pathways strategies for building a skilled workforce.
This study examines how the neighborhood environments experienced over multiple generations of a family influence children's cognitive ability. Building on recent research showing strong continuity in neighborhood environments across generations of family members, the authors argue for a revised perspective on “neighborhood effects” that considers the ways in which the neighborhood environment in one generation may have a lingering impact on the next generation.
Previous research on maternal employment has disproportionately focused on married, college-educated mothers and examined either current employment status or postpartum return to employment. Following the life course perspective, we instead conceptualize maternal careers as long-term life course patterns. Using data from the NLSY79 and optimal matching, we document four common employment patterns of American mothers over the first 18 years of maternity. About two-thirds follow steady patterns, either full-time employment (38 percent) or steady nonemployment (24 percent).