Skip to main content
Back to Top


2017 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report

Individual Author: 
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report assesses the performance of our healthcare system and identifies areas of strengths and weaknesses, as well as disparities, for access to healthcare and quality of healthcare. Quality is described in terms of six priorities: patient safety, person-centered care, care coordination, effective treatment, healthy living, and care affordability. The report is based on more than 250 measures of quality and disparities covering a broad array of healthcare services and settings. (Author introduction)


How far Americans live from the closest hospital differs by community type

Individual Author: 
Lam, Onyi
Broderick, Brian
Toor, Skye

Rural Americans are more likely than people in urban and suburban areas to say access to good doctors and hospitals is a major problem in their community. Nearly a quarter (23%) of Americans in rural areas say this, compared with 18% of urbanites and 9% of suburbanites, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted earlier this year. (Edited author introduction)

Data snapshot: EITC continues to reach families in poor places

Individual Author: 
Schaefer, Andrew
Mattingly, Marybeth J.
Nickerson, Kennedy
Carson, Jessica A.

Recent proposals in the House and Senate (for example, the Grow American Incomes Now Act) focus on amplifying the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)—a refundable tax credit for low-income workers—to compensate for growing wage inequity. We find that the share of EITC filers who are families with children is especially high in the poorest counties (those counties outlined in black on Map 1), including many places throughout the South.

Beyond the nuclear family: Trends in children living in shared households

Individual Author: 
Pilkauskas, Natasha V.
Cross, Christina

Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and the 2009–2016 American Community Survey, we examine trends in U.S. children living in shared households (living with adults beyond their nuclear (parent/ parent’s partner/sibling) family). We find that although the share of children who lived in a shared household increased over this period, the rise was nearly entirely driven by an increase in three-generation/multigenerational households (coresident grandparent(s), parent(s), and child).

Child care subsidy programs and child care choices: Effects on the number and type of arrangements

Individual Author: 
Pilarz, Alejandra Ros

Despite strong evidence that stable, high-quality child care promotes young children's development, low-income children are less likely to participate in formal and high-quality care than higher-income children and may be more likely to experience multiple, concurrent arrangements due to parents' economic and employment constraints. Child care subsidy programs increase low-income children's access to formal, center-based care, but little is known as to whether subsidies also influence the use of multiple arrangements.

Increasing access to quality child care for four priority populations: Challenges and opportunities with CCDBG reauthorization

Individual Author: 
Henly, Julia R.
Adams, Gina

In recent decades, policymakers have increasingly focused on the importance of high-quality child care and early education services in supporting the development of low-income children. Though highquality early care and education (ECE) can exist in any setting—including child care centers, family child care programs, and other home-based care arrangements—the emphasis on high-quality ECE services has often translated into a singular focus on investing public funds in formal settings, especially centerbased programs.

New measures of student poverty: Replacing free and reduced-price lunch status based on household forms with direct certification

Individual Author: 
Greenberg, Erica

Free and reduced-price lunch status has long been used as a proxy measure for student poverty. This brief offers a short history of school lunch and its recent decline as a measure of economic disadvantage. It then provides a primer on “direct certification,” the most promising alternative, which links student enrollment with public benefits data to directly assess students’ household income. Under direct certification, eligibility rules, application, and eligibility determination procedures of public benefits programs take on new importance in affecting counts of low-income students.

The interaction between the minimum wage and the federal EITC

Individual Author: 
Schaefer, Andrew
Carson, Jessica
Mattingly, Marybeth J.
Wink, Andrew

Increases in the minimum wage are widely assumed to be beneficial for low-income workers, but it is important to consider the effect an increase might have on eligibility for other benefits, particularly the federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). This fact sheet examines the interaction between the minimum wage and the EITC to determine whether a minimum wage increase would produce gains in the sum of earnings plus EITC dollars for low-income workers. (Author summary)


What explains the widespread material hardship among low-income families with children?

Individual Author: 
Karpman, Michael
Gonzalez, Dulce
Zuckerman, Stephen
Adams, Gina

Using data from the December 2017 round of the Urban Institute’s Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey, this brief assesses the prevalence of material hardship among parents living with children under age 19, how this varies by family income and ages of children, and the characteristics of low-income parents who report hardships. We then identify factors associated with an increased or reduced risk of material hardship among parents with low incomes, defined as family income below 200 percent of the federal poverty level.

Accessing the network of local upskilling and related resources available to support your business

Individual Author: 
UpSkill America
National Association of Workforce Boards

Teaming up with the National Association of Workforce BoardsUpSkill America developed a new tool that explains just how these organizations can help you. The tool provides an overview of what the public workforce system does and connects you to resources to start taking advantage of its services.