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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Sawhill, Isabel V.; Haskins, Ron
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2009

    Americans believe economic opportunity is as fundamental a right as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. More concerned about a level playing field for all, they worry less about the growing income and wealth disparity in our country. Creating an Opportunity Society examines economic opportunity in the United States and explores how to create more of it, particularly for those on the bottom rungs of the economic ladder. Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill propose a concrete agenda for increasing opportunity that is cost effective, consistent with American values, and focuses on improving the lives of the young and the disadvantaged. They emphasize individual responsibility as an indispensable basis for successful policies and programs. The authors recommend a three-pronged approach to create more opportunity in America: " Increase education for children and youth at the preschool, K--12, and postsecondary levels " Encourage and support work among adults " Reduce the number of out-of-wedlock births while increasing the share of children reared by their married parents With...

    Americans believe economic opportunity is as fundamental a right as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. More concerned about a level playing field for all, they worry less about the growing income and wealth disparity in our country. Creating an Opportunity Society examines economic opportunity in the United States and explores how to create more of it, particularly for those on the bottom rungs of the economic ladder. Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill propose a concrete agenda for increasing opportunity that is cost effective, consistent with American values, and focuses on improving the lives of the young and the disadvantaged. They emphasize individual responsibility as an indispensable basis for successful policies and programs. The authors recommend a three-pronged approach to create more opportunity in America: " Increase education for children and youth at the preschool, K--12, and postsecondary levels " Encourage and support work among adults " Reduce the number of out-of-wedlock births while increasing the share of children reared by their married parents With concern for the federal deficit in mind, Haskins and Sawhill argue for reallocating existing resources, especially from the affluent elderly to disadvantaged children and their families. The authors are optimistic that a judicious use of the nation's resources can level the playing field and produce more opportunity for all. Creating an Opportunity Society offers the most complete summary available of the facts and the factors that contribute to economic opportunity. It looks at the poor, the middle class, and the rich, providing deep background data on how each group has fared in recent decades. Unfortunately, only the rich have made substantial progress, making this book a timely guide forward for anyone interested in what we can do as a society to improve the prospects for our less-advantaged families and fellow citizens. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a college degree relative to women with fewer years of education. However, the patterns of, and reasons for, marriage have changed. College educated women marry later, have fewer children, are less likely to view marriage as “financial security”, are happier in their marriages and with their family life, and are not only the least likely to divorce, but have had the biggest decrease in divorce since the 1970s compared to women without a college degree. In contrast, there have been fewer changes in marital patterns by education for men. (author abstract)

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a college degree relative to women with fewer years of education. However, the patterns of, and reasons for, marriage have changed. College educated women marry later, have fewer children, are less likely to view marriage as “financial security”, are happier in their marriages and with their family life, and are not only the least likely to divorce, but have had the biggest decrease in divorce since the 1970s compared to women without a college degree. In contrast, there have been fewer changes in marital patterns by education for men. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2014

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of low-income working families continues to increase, from 10.2 million in 2010 up to 10.4 million in 2011 (Roberts, Povich, & Mathers, 2012-2013). Children are particularly hard hit, with more than 32 million children living in poverty today—many in homes where at least one parent is working (Addy, Engelhardt, & Skinner, 2013). While the United States economy continues to show signs of recovery from the Great Recession, the economic outlook for many low-income, underemployed families is bleak. The earnings gap between those who are able to obtain education leading to higher level skills and those who cannot continues to grow (The Anne E. Casey Foundation, 2005; Roberts, Povich, & Mathers, 2012-2013).

    To address these issues, many human services programs, including the Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood (HMRF) program, seek to help individuals build their capacity to obtain and keep employment. Through a set of activities known as economic stability and workforce development (ESWD), HMRF grantees work to...

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of low-income working families continues to increase, from 10.2 million in 2010 up to 10.4 million in 2011 (Roberts, Povich, & Mathers, 2012-2013). Children are particularly hard hit, with more than 32 million children living in poverty today—many in homes where at least one parent is working (Addy, Engelhardt, & Skinner, 2013). While the United States economy continues to show signs of recovery from the Great Recession, the economic outlook for many low-income, underemployed families is bleak. The earnings gap between those who are able to obtain education leading to higher level skills and those who cannot continues to grow (The Anne E. Casey Foundation, 2005; Roberts, Povich, & Mathers, 2012-2013).

    To address these issues, many human services programs, including the Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood (HMRF) program, seek to help individuals build their capacity to obtain and keep employment. Through a set of activities known as economic stability and workforce development (ESWD), HMRF grantees work to improve the economic well-being of children and families through employment and career advancement.

    To support organizations in implementing effective ESWD services, OFA has developed a conceptual framework for guiding HMRF programs in establishing and strengthening systems to support participants in achieving economic stability. The framework is designed to help HMRF grantees more effectively organize their services for maximum impact and to strengthen partnerships with other community organizations that seek to help low-income families in find, retain, and advance in employment. This framework, called A Community-Based HMRF Workforce Strategy, links key concepts of economic stability with specific strategies that programs and participants can employ.

    Based on the conceptual workforce strategy, this toolkit provides suggestions and resources regarding key case management and service delivery components. Together, those components can meaningfully help low-income program participants move along a pathway toward job and financial security. The toolkit comprises five modules that align with the key component of the ESWD framework—from intake and assessment to work retention and career advancement. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Sawhill, Isabel
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2015

    Fifty years ago, in 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan presciently warned that the breakdown of the family was becoming a key source of disadvantage in the African American community. He received intense criticism at the time. Yet the trends he identified have not gone away. Indeed, they have “trickled up” to encompass not just a much larger fraction of the African American community but a large swath of the white community as well. Still, the racial gaps remain large. The proportion of black children born outside marriage was 72 percent in 2012, while the white proportion was 36 percent (see “Was Moynihan Right?” features, Spring 2015, Figure 2). The effects on children of the increase in single parents is no longer much debated. They do less well in school, are less likely to graduate, and are more likely to be involved in crime, teen pregnancy, and other behaviors that make it harder to succeed in life. Not every child raised by a single parent will suffer from the experience, but, on average, a lone parent has fewer resources—both time and money—with which to raise a child....

    Fifty years ago, in 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan presciently warned that the breakdown of the family was becoming a key source of disadvantage in the African American community. He received intense criticism at the time. Yet the trends he identified have not gone away. Indeed, they have “trickled up” to encompass not just a much larger fraction of the African American community but a large swath of the white community as well. Still, the racial gaps remain large. The proportion of black children born outside marriage was 72 percent in 2012, while the white proportion was 36 percent (see “Was Moynihan Right?” features, Spring 2015, Figure 2). The effects on children of the increase in single parents is no longer much debated. They do less well in school, are less likely to graduate, and are more likely to be involved in crime, teen pregnancy, and other behaviors that make it harder to succeed in life. Not every child raised by a single parent will suffer from the experience, but, on average, a lone parent has fewer resources—both time and money—with which to raise a child. Poverty rates for single-parent families are five times those for married-parent families (see “Was Moynihan Right?” features, Spring 2015, Figure 4)...Recent research suggests that boys are indeed more affected than girls by the lack of a male role model in the family. If true, this sets the stage for a cycle of poverty in which mother-headed families produce boys who go on to father their own children outside marriage. But what does all of this have to do with education? Rates of unwed childbearing and divorce are much lower among well-educated than among less-educated women. The proportion of first births that occur outside of marriage is only 12 percent for those who are college graduates but 58 percent for everyone else. So more and better education is one clear path to reducing unwed parenthood and the growth of single parent families in the future. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Bailey, Martha J. (editor); DiPrete, Thomas A. (editor)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2016

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates...

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates: The Influence of Sex-Type of Degree Field Across Four Cohorts 152

    Kimberlee A. Shauman

    Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter? 194

    Katherine Michelmore and Sharon Sassler

    Part IV. Marriage, Divorce, and Women’s Earnings

    Trends in Relative Earnings and Marital Dissolution: Are Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands Still More Likely to Divorce? 218

    Christine R. Schwartz and Pilar Gonalons-Pons

    Selection and Specialization in the Evolution of Marriage Earnings Gaps 237

    Chinhui Juhn and Kristin McCue

    Part V. Education, Work, and Political Participation

    Advances and Ambivalence: The Consequences of Women’s Educational and Workforce Changes for Women’s Political Participation in the United States, 1952 to 2012 272

    Ashley Jardina and Nancy Burns

     

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