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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hoxby, Caroline; Turner, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Only a minority of high-achieving, low-income students apply to colleges in the same way that other high-achieving students do: applying to several selective colleges whose curriculum is designed for students with a level of achievement like their own. This is despite the fact that selective colleges typically cost them high-achieving, low-income students less while offering them more generous resources than the non-selective postsecondary institutions they mainly attend. In previous work, we demonstrate that the vast majority of high-achieving, low-income students are unlikely to be reached by traditional methods of informing students about their college opportunities since such methods require the students to be concentrated geographically. In this study, we use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate interventions that provide students with semi-customized information on the application process and colleges' net costs. The interventions also provide students with no-paperwork application fee waivers. The ECO Comprehensive (ECO-C) Intervention costs about $6 per student, and...

    Only a minority of high-achieving, low-income students apply to colleges in the same way that other high-achieving students do: applying to several selective colleges whose curriculum is designed for students with a level of achievement like their own. This is despite the fact that selective colleges typically cost them high-achieving, low-income students less while offering them more generous resources than the non-selective postsecondary institutions they mainly attend. In previous work, we demonstrate that the vast majority of high-achieving, low-income students are unlikely to be reached by traditional methods of informing students about their college opportunities since such methods require the students to be concentrated geographically. In this study, we use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate interventions that provide students with semi-customized information on the application process and colleges' net costs. The interventions also provide students with no-paperwork application fee waivers. The ECO Comprehensive (ECO-C) Intervention costs about $6 per student, and we find that it causes high-achieving, low-income students to apply and be admitted to more colleges, especially those with high graduation rates and generous instructional resources. The students respond to their enlarged opportunity sets by enrolling in colleges that have stronger academic records, higher graduation rates, and more generous resources. Their freshman grades are as good as the control students', despite the fact that the control students attend less selective colleges and therefore compete with peers whose incoming preparation is substantially inferior. Benefit-to-cost ratios for the ECO-C Intervention are extremely high, even under the most conservative assumptions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schochet, Peter Z.; Burghardt, John; McConnell, Sheena
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    This report is the final in a series of project reports presenting impact and benefit-cost findings from this large-scale random assignment evaluation of Job Corps. The report serves two main purposes. First, it presents an additional year of earnings impacts to those presented in the previous project report (Schochet and Burghardt 2005) and updates findings from the benefit-cost analysis. Second, it places the earnings impact findings in perspective, by providing a comprehensive summary of key study findings across all project reports. Thus, this selfcontained report pulls together and interprets the main evaluation results from the past twelve years. (author abstract)

    This report is the final in a series of project reports presenting impact and benefit-cost findings from this large-scale random assignment evaluation of Job Corps. The report serves two main purposes. First, it presents an additional year of earnings impacts to those presented in the previous project report (Schochet and Burghardt 2005) and updates findings from the benefit-cost analysis. Second, it places the earnings impact findings in perspective, by providing a comprehensive summary of key study findings across all project reports. Thus, this selfcontained report pulls together and interprets the main evaluation results from the past twelve years. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Perez-Johnson, Irma; Moore, Quinn; Santillano, Robert
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    Following passage of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), local workforce investment areas have been required to use individual training accounts (ITAs) to fund most occupational training activities. With some restrictions, customers of the One-Stop system can use ITAs to select training from a wide array of state-approved programs and providers. States and local offices have a great deal of flexibility in deciding how to structure ITAs. At one extreme, local counselors can play a pivotal role in directing customers to particular training programs and closely tailoring ITA award amounts to each customer’s needs. At the other extreme, local staff can play a minor role, providing all customers with the same fixed ITA amounts, allowing customers to choose their training programs independently, and providing counseling only on request.

    This report presents long-term results from an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of three different models for delivering ITA services, with impacts measured six to eight years after program enrollment. The Employment and...

    Following passage of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), local workforce investment areas have been required to use individual training accounts (ITAs) to fund most occupational training activities. With some restrictions, customers of the One-Stop system can use ITAs to select training from a wide array of state-approved programs and providers. States and local offices have a great deal of flexibility in deciding how to structure ITAs. At one extreme, local counselors can play a pivotal role in directing customers to particular training programs and closely tailoring ITA award amounts to each customer’s needs. At the other extreme, local staff can play a minor role, providing all customers with the same fixed ITA amounts, allowing customers to choose their training programs independently, and providing counseling only on request.

    This report presents long-term results from an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of three different models for delivering ITA services, with impacts measured six to eight years after program enrollment. The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) at the U.S. Department of Labor designed the ITA experiment to provide federal, state, and local policymakers, administrators, and program managers with information on the tradeoffs inherent in different ITA service delivery models.

    As a part of the experiment, nearly 8,000 customers of One-Stop Centers in eight different sites were randomly assigned to one of the three ITA service delivery models tested in the ITA Experiment. These models varied along three policy-relevant dimensions (Table ES.1): (1) the ITA award structure (that is, whether the award amount was fixed for all customers or tailored to the customer’s needs); (2) required counseling (that is, whether ITA counseling was mandatory or optional, and its intensity); and (3) program approval (that is, whether counselors could reject customers’ training choices and deny an ITA, or had to approve them if the customer had completed his or her ITA requirements). (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schochet, Peter Z.; McConnell, Sheena; Burghardt, John
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    Job Corps stands out as the nation’s largest, most comprehensive education and job training program for disadvantaged youths. It serves disadvantaged youths between the ages of 16 and 24, primarily in a residential setting. It provides comprehensive services—basic education, vocational skills training, health care and education, counseling, and residential support. Each year, Job Corps serves more than 60,000 new participants in about 120 centers nationwide, at a cost of about $1.5 billion.

    The National Job Corps Study has been conducted since 1993 under contract with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). It is intended to provide Congress and program managers with the information they need to assess how well Job Corps attains its goal of helping students become more responsible, employable, and productive citizens.

    The cornerstone of the National Job Corps Study was the random assignment of all youths found eligible for Job Corps to either a program group (who could enroll in Job Corps) or a control group (who could not). Random assignment took place between late...

    Job Corps stands out as the nation’s largest, most comprehensive education and job training program for disadvantaged youths. It serves disadvantaged youths between the ages of 16 and 24, primarily in a residential setting. It provides comprehensive services—basic education, vocational skills training, health care and education, counseling, and residential support. Each year, Job Corps serves more than 60,000 new participants in about 120 centers nationwide, at a cost of about $1.5 billion.

    The National Job Corps Study has been conducted since 1993 under contract with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). It is intended to provide Congress and program managers with the information they need to assess how well Job Corps attains its goal of helping students become more responsible, employable, and productive citizens.

    The cornerstone of the National Job Corps Study was the random assignment of all youths found eligible for Job Corps to either a program group (who could enroll in Job Corps) or a control group (who could not). Random assignment took place between late 1994 and early 1996. In previous reports, we presented impact and benefit-cost estimates by comparing the experiences—and in particular, the earnings—of the program and control groups using data from follow-up interviews conducted during the four years after random assignment. This report presents findings from an analysis of administrative earnings records. These data allow us to address two questions: (1) Do survey and administrative earnings data yield similar impact estimates on earnings during the periods covered by both data sources? and (2) What are estimated impacts on earnings in the two and a half years beyond the four-year period covered by the survey? Two sources of administrative data were collected for the study: (1) annual social security earnings (SER) data reported by employers to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and (2) quarterly wage records reported by employers to state unemployment insurance (UI) agencies in 22 randomly selected states. The SER and UI data cover nearly all workers in formal jobs. Our findings using these data are summarized below. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Levin, Henry L.; Garcia, Emma; Morgan, James
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Although community colleges enroll almost half of the students engaged in postsecondary education, they have poor success in student completion of degrees. Nationally it appears that less than a quarter of community college students obtain the two-year associate degree, and the success rate is even lower in urban community colleges. In response, the City University of New York (CUNY) evaluated the obstacles to degree completion and responded by establishing the Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). ASAP attempts to assist students in overcoming financial, academic, and scheduling difficulties that undermine degree attainment. An early evaluation of ASAP students over three years found that in comparison with a matched group of students in six community colleges of CUNY, the graduation rates doubled from about a quarter of students completing to more than half. But ASAP does require additional financial resources. The purpose of this study was to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis to see if the additional costs were compensated by a higher graduation rate sufficient...

    Although community colleges enroll almost half of the students engaged in postsecondary education, they have poor success in student completion of degrees. Nationally it appears that less than a quarter of community college students obtain the two-year associate degree, and the success rate is even lower in urban community colleges. In response, the City University of New York (CUNY) evaluated the obstacles to degree completion and responded by establishing the Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). ASAP attempts to assist students in overcoming financial, academic, and scheduling difficulties that undermine degree attainment. An early evaluation of ASAP students over three years found that in comparison with a matched group of students in six community colleges of CUNY, the graduation rates doubled from about a quarter of students completing to more than half. But ASAP does require additional financial resources. The purpose of this study was to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis to see if the additional costs were compensated by a higher graduation rate sufficient to justify those costs. The cost of producing an additional graduate in the comparison group without ASAP was compared with the cost when ASAP was provided. The conclusion is that ASAP is so much more effective in producing additional graduates in a timely fashion and that the cost per graduate for ASAP is comparable to or less than that of the traditional approach. ASAP can increase considerably the number of CUNY community college graduates while actually reducing costs. (author abstract)

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