American Indians living on reservations or in other tribal areas (Indian Country) are among the most disadvantaged populations in the United States. The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), section 141, requires the Department of Agriculture (USDA) to report to Congress on the ways that Federal nutrition programs can help overcome child hunger and nutrition problems on Indian reservations. To meet this requirement, this report addresses three questions:
1. What is the level of food insecurity, obesity, and Type II diabetes1 among American Indian children living in Indian Country?
2. What is the scope and reach of Federal nutrition programs in Indian Country?
3. How can the HHFKA improve food security and reduce obesity and diabetes risk among American Indian children living in Indian Country?
Before addressing these issues, we briefly describe the population of American Indians (AIs) as a whole and those living in Indian Country. We define AIs, in general, as those who report American Indian as their race in the U.S. Census or other national...