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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Kreider, Brent; Pepper, John V.; Roy, Manan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) is considered a crucial component of the social safety net in the United States, yet there is limited supporting evidence on the effects of WIC on the nutritional well-being and food security of infants and young children. Two key identification problems have been especially difficult to address. First, the decision to take up WIC is endogenous as households are not randomly assigned to the program; recipients are likely to differ from nonrecipients in unobserved ways (e.g., prior health) that are related to associated outcomes. Second, survey respondents often fail to report receiving public assistance, and the existing literature has uncovered substantial degrees of systematic misclassification of WIC participation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we apply recently developed partial identification methodologies to jointly account for these two identification problems in a single framework. Under relatively weak assumptions, we find that WIC reduces the prevalence of child food...

    The Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) is considered a crucial component of the social safety net in the United States, yet there is limited supporting evidence on the effects of WIC on the nutritional well-being and food security of infants and young children. Two key identification problems have been especially difficult to address. First, the decision to take up WIC is endogenous as households are not randomly assigned to the program; recipients are likely to differ from nonrecipients in unobserved ways (e.g., prior health) that are related to associated outcomes. Second, survey respondents often fail to report receiving public assistance, and the existing literature has uncovered substantial degrees of systematic misclassification of WIC participation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we apply recently developed partial identification methodologies to jointly account for these two identification problems in a single framework. Under relatively weak assumptions, we find that WIC reduces the prevalence of child food insecurity by at least 5.5 percentage points and very low food security by at least 1.5 percentage points. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wallace, Sally; Cox, Robynn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This study seeks to determine the role that parental incarceration plays on the probability of food insecurity among families with children and very low food security of children using micro-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being Study (FFCWS). The data set contains the 18-question food security module which allows us to explore the link between incarceration and food insecurity and very low  food security among children, families, and adults. The incidence of very low food security in our data is somewhat higher than the national average, but the incidence of other levels of food security is similar to national aggregates.

    Since there is likely reverse causality in the relationship between parental incarceration and food insecurity, we employ a variety of program evaluation techniques to identify the causal relationship between food insecurity and parental incarceration. We employ imputation techniques to account for non-response among the food security variables and independent variables.

    Our ordinary least squares results suggest that having at...

    This study seeks to determine the role that parental incarceration plays on the probability of food insecurity among families with children and very low food security of children using micro-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being Study (FFCWS). The data set contains the 18-question food security module which allows us to explore the link between incarceration and food insecurity and very low  food security among children, families, and adults. The incidence of very low food security in our data is somewhat higher than the national average, but the incidence of other levels of food security is similar to national aggregates.

    Since there is likely reverse causality in the relationship between parental incarceration and food insecurity, we employ a variety of program evaluation techniques to identify the causal relationship between food insecurity and parental incarceration. We employ imputation techniques to account for non-response among the food security variables and independent variables.

    Our ordinary least squares results suggest that having at least one parent that has ever been incarcerated has a small positive effect (1 to 4 percentage points) on the probability of very low food security among children, adults and households with children, but the results are not significant in various specification. Food insecurity for adults and households with children (a less dire level of food insecurity than very low food security) is affected by parental incarceration under most specifications with magnitudes of impact from 4 to 15 percentage points. This research provides some evidence that incarceration adversely affects children and families in terms of food insecurity. Policies to mitigate the impact could be addressed through the court system whereby children are provided with court-sanctioned support to address food needs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wight, Vanessa; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane; Garfinkel, Irwin
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty – the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001–2011 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increases. The point estimates show that the associations are stronger as measured by the new supplemental measure of income-to-needs ratio than when estimated through the official measure. Statistical tests reject the hypothesis that poor households' odds of experiencing low food security are the same whether the SPM or OPM measure is used; but the tests do not reject the hypothesis when very low food security is the outcome. (author abstract)

    This article was based on a previously published working paper from...

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty – the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001–2011 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increases. The point estimates show that the associations are stronger as measured by the new supplemental measure of income-to-needs ratio than when estimated through the official measure. Statistical tests reject the hypothesis that poor households' odds of experiencing low food security are the same whether the SPM or OPM measure is used; but the tests do not reject the hypothesis when very low food security is the outcome. (author abstract)

    This article was based on a previously published working paper from the University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research.

  • Individual Author: Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In 2009, approximately 23 percent of households with children aged 6 and younger in the United States were food insecure. At the same time, over-nutrition is a growing problem among American children; 10.4 percent of 2- to 5-year-old children were considered obese (above the 95th percentile for age and gender) in 2007 to 2008, double the rate in the 1970s. This study examines how local food prices affect children’s food insecurity, obesity, and eating habits, and whether food assistance receipt buffers these effects. Specifically, the two primary research objectives of this study are to: (1) Estimate how local food prices influence the food insecurity, obesity status, and eating patterns of children from birth to 5 years of age. And (2) Understand how participation in food assistance programs changes the relationship between food prices and the food insecurity, obesity status, and eating patterns of children from birth to 5 years of age. Study results will have important policy implications, particularly in light of increasing food prices. (author abstract)

    In 2009, approximately 23 percent of households with children aged 6 and younger in the United States were food insecure. At the same time, over-nutrition is a growing problem among American children; 10.4 percent of 2- to 5-year-old children were considered obese (above the 95th percentile for age and gender) in 2007 to 2008, double the rate in the 1970s. This study examines how local food prices affect children’s food insecurity, obesity, and eating habits, and whether food assistance receipt buffers these effects. Specifically, the two primary research objectives of this study are to: (1) Estimate how local food prices influence the food insecurity, obesity status, and eating patterns of children from birth to 5 years of age. And (2) Understand how participation in food assistance programs changes the relationship between food prices and the food insecurity, obesity status, and eating patterns of children from birth to 5 years of age. Study results will have important policy implications, particularly in light of increasing food prices. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gibson, Diane M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Using a sample of low-income adults, this project will examine whether the availability of food retail and food service establishments in a person’s neighborhood of residence (a person’s “neighborhood food environment”) was associated with the types of establishments where the person purchased food, the person’s daily energy intake, weight status, and weight-related comorbidities, and will consider whether these associations differed for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP (formerly Food Stamp Program or FSP) participants compared to eligible nonparticipants. The results of this project will offer insight into whether the neighborhood food environment influences how food spending is allocated across types of food establishments and whether changing the allocation of food spending across types of food establishments in turn leads to differences in energy intake, weight status, and weight-related comorbidities for low-income individuals, SNAP participants, and eligible nonparticipants. (author abstract)

    Using a sample of low-income adults, this project will examine whether the availability of food retail and food service establishments in a person’s neighborhood of residence (a person’s “neighborhood food environment”) was associated with the types of establishments where the person purchased food, the person’s daily energy intake, weight status, and weight-related comorbidities, and will consider whether these associations differed for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP (formerly Food Stamp Program or FSP) participants compared to eligible nonparticipants. The results of this project will offer insight into whether the neighborhood food environment influences how food spending is allocated across types of food establishments and whether changing the allocation of food spending across types of food establishments in turn leads to differences in energy intake, weight status, and weight-related comorbidities for low-income individuals, SNAP participants, and eligible nonparticipants. (author abstract)

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