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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Scherpf, Erik
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This study investigates young adults’ first experience with the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), examining the determinants of first program entry and exit. It makes use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which follows respondents from adolescence into adulthood. This study estimates discrete-time hazard models of program entry and exit with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Unobserved heterogeneity is modeled using both a parametric approach, in which a gamma distribution is assumed, and a non-parametric approach with two mass points. The results are broadly consistent across models, indicating that, for the cohort in this study, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity does not substantially alter the results from a basic discrete-time hazard model. The results show that expanded categorical eligibility increased the hazard of SNAP entry in the six years following high school, while the absence of vehicle exclusions decreased the entry hazard. For program exit, however, state SNAP policies had no statistically significant...

    This study investigates young adults’ first experience with the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), examining the determinants of first program entry and exit. It makes use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which follows respondents from adolescence into adulthood. This study estimates discrete-time hazard models of program entry and exit with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Unobserved heterogeneity is modeled using both a parametric approach, in which a gamma distribution is assumed, and a non-parametric approach with two mass points. The results are broadly consistent across models, indicating that, for the cohort in this study, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity does not substantially alter the results from a basic discrete-time hazard model. The results show that expanded categorical eligibility increased the hazard of SNAP entry in the six years following high school, while the absence of vehicle exclusions decreased the entry hazard. For program exit, however, state SNAP policies had no statistically significant effect. The recent birth of a child, prior participation in WIC and low educational attainment were each strongly associated with an increased “risk” of SNAP entry, and decreased “risk” of exit. Somewhat, surprisingly, higher unemployment rates in the local labor market were not significantly associated with higher entry risk, but were strongly associated with a lower exit risk. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Burke, John; Das, Barnali; Steketee, Michael
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    The United States Department of Agriculture is seeking innovative ways to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants’ access to fresh produce by increasing the number of farmers markets and direct marketing farmers authorized to accept SNAP benefits. This study describes how farmers markets and direct marketing farmers operate and their perceived benefits and barriers to accepting SNAP. (author abstract)

    The United States Department of Agriculture is seeking innovative ways to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants’ access to fresh produce by increasing the number of farmers markets and direct marketing farmers authorized to accept SNAP benefits. This study describes how farmers markets and direct marketing farmers operate and their perceived benefits and barriers to accepting SNAP. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Solomon-Fears, Carmen; Falk, Gene; Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
    Year: 2013

    This report displays and discusses some of the data related to the poverty of children and their living arrangements and data on male employment and earnings, educational attainment, and incarceration. It then provides information on federal programs that could play a greater role in addressing poverty of children through the fathers of these children (nearly all noncustodial parents are fathers). These programs provide economic assistance, family support, and job training and employment to eligible participants. The report also examines federal programs that have the purposes of preventing teen pregnancy and helping disadvantaged youth obtain the skills and support they need to make the transition to adulthood. The underlying premise of these programs generally is that the aid or services received from these programs by low-income noncustodial fathers can help them in meeting their financial commitments to their children (or future children) and providing emotional support to their children. The report concludes by presenting several public policy approaches proposed by the...

    This report displays and discusses some of the data related to the poverty of children and their living arrangements and data on male employment and earnings, educational attainment, and incarceration. It then provides information on federal programs that could play a greater role in addressing poverty of children through the fathers of these children (nearly all noncustodial parents are fathers). These programs provide economic assistance, family support, and job training and employment to eligible participants. The report also examines federal programs that have the purposes of preventing teen pregnancy and helping disadvantaged youth obtain the skills and support they need to make the transition to adulthood. The underlying premise of these programs generally is that the aid or services received from these programs by low-income noncustodial fathers can help them in meeting their financial commitments to their children (or future children) and providing emotional support to their children. The report concludes by presenting several public policy approaches proposed by the policy community that might improve the lives of low-income noncustodial fathers and their children. For example, social policy could play a role by expanding economic assistance programs to noncustodial fathers, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); and implementing strategies to prevent the build-up of unpaid child support through early intervention. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following:

    - Medicaid,

    - The low-income subsidy (LIS) for Part D of Medicare (the part of Medicare that provides prescription drug benefits),

    - The refundable portion of the earned income tax credit (EITC),

    - The refundable portion of the child tax credit (CTC),

    - Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

    - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),

    - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp program),

    - Child nutrition programs,

    - Housing assistance programs, and

    - The Federal Pell Grant Program.

    As shown in this report and an accompanying infographic, in 2012, federal spending on those programs and tax credits...

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following:

    - Medicaid,

    - The low-income subsidy (LIS) for Part D of Medicare (the part of Medicare that provides prescription drug benefits),

    - The refundable portion of the earned income tax credit (EITC),

    - The refundable portion of the child tax credit (CTC),

    - Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

    - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),

    - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp program),

    - Child nutrition programs,

    - Housing assistance programs, and

    - The Federal Pell Grant Program.

    As shown in this report and an accompanying infographic, in 2012, federal spending on those programs and tax credits totaled $588 billion. (Certain larger federal benefit programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, are not considered means-tested programs because they are not limited to people with specific amounts of income or assets.)

    Total federal spending on those 10 programs (adjusted to exclude the effects of inflation) rose more than tenfold—or by an average of about 6 percent a year—in the four decades since 1972 (when only half of the programs existed). As a share of the economy, federal spending on those programs grew from 1 percent to almost 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) over that period. (For ease of presentation, this report frequently uses the term “programs” to encompass both the spending programs and the tax credits.) (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fox, Mary Kay; Condon, Elizabeth; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Niland, Katherine; Mercury, Denise; Forrestal, Sarah; Cabili, Charlotte; Oddo, Vanessa; Gordon, Anne; Wozny, Nathan; Killewald, Alexandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) provide meals and snacks to children during the school year. The overarching goal of both programs, known collectively as the school meal programs, is to ensure that children do not go hungry and have access to nutritious meals and snacks that support normal growth and development. All public and private nonprofit schools are eligible to participate in the school meal programs and any child in a participating school is eligible to obtain school meals. Students from low-income households are eligible to receive meals free or at a reduced price.

    The school meal programs are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NSLP is the second largest of 15 nutrition assistance programs administered by FNS. Established in 1946, the program operates in virtually all public schools and 94 percent of all schools (public and private combined) in the United States. (Ralston et al. 2008). In fiscal year (FY) 2010, the program served lunches to an...

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) provide meals and snacks to children during the school year. The overarching goal of both programs, known collectively as the school meal programs, is to ensure that children do not go hungry and have access to nutritious meals and snacks that support normal growth and development. All public and private nonprofit schools are eligible to participate in the school meal programs and any child in a participating school is eligible to obtain school meals. Students from low-income households are eligible to receive meals free or at a reduced price.

    The school meal programs are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NSLP is the second largest of 15 nutrition assistance programs administered by FNS. Established in 1946, the program operates in virtually all public schools and 94 percent of all schools (public and private combined) in the United States. (Ralston et al. 2008). In fiscal year (FY) 2010, the program served lunches to an average of 31.7 million children on an average school day. Almost two-thirds (65 percent) of these lunches were served free or at a reduced price to children from low-income households. Since 1998, schools participating in the NSLP have had the option of providing snacks to children in eligible afterschool programs. In FY 2010, 1.3 million afterschool snacks were served through the NSLP on an average school day.

    The SBP began as a pilot program in 1966 and was made permanent in 1975. Over the years, the program has steadily expanded. In school year (SY) 2009–2010, the SBP was available in 89 percent of schools that operated the NSLP. In FY 2010, the program served 11.7 million children on an average school day. The SBP primarily serves children from low-income households—in FY 2010, 84 percent of SBP meals were served free or at a reduced price. Since the 1980s, FNS has assessed the school meal programs on a periodic basis. This report summarizes findings from the most recent assessment—the fourth School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-IV), which was completed in SY 2009–2010.3 Mathematica Policy Research conducted SNDA-IV under contract with FNS. (author abstract)

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