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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hoefer, Richard; Curry, Carolyn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    America's vulnerable populations face increasing levels of food insecurity, hunger and poverty as social protection programs are attacked and delegitimized. This paper examines the changes in social protection policy as a whole but focuses on the extreme case of food security. We first look at the interrelated concepts and definitions of food security, hunger and poverty. Next, we describe governmental programs addressing food security issues. We end with a discussion of food security and social protection, and the state of vulnerability among low-income persons currently and in the near future. (author abstract)

    America's vulnerable populations face increasing levels of food insecurity, hunger and poverty as social protection programs are attacked and delegitimized. This paper examines the changes in social protection policy as a whole but focuses on the extreme case of food security. We first look at the interrelated concepts and definitions of food security, hunger and poverty. Next, we describe governmental programs addressing food security issues. We end with a discussion of food security and social protection, and the state of vulnerability among low-income persons currently and in the near future. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Oliveira, Victor; Tiehen, Laura; Ver Ploeg, Michele
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    The year 2014 marks the 50th anniversary of the “War on Poverty,” formally launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his State of the Union address in January 1964. In his address, President Johnson declared “unconditional war on poverty in America” in response to large numbers of Americans “with incomes too small to even meet their basic needs.” One of those basic needs—food—was soon to be a major component of how poverty was measured. Many of USDA’s food and nutrition assistance programs were designed to address this basic need and are legacies of the War on Poverty. Today, these programs remain on the front line of America’s antipoverty efforts. (author abstract) 

    The year 2014 marks the 50th anniversary of the “War on Poverty,” formally launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his State of the Union address in January 1964. In his address, President Johnson declared “unconditional war on poverty in America” in response to large numbers of Americans “with incomes too small to even meet their basic needs.” One of those basic needs—food—was soon to be a major component of how poverty was measured. Many of USDA’s food and nutrition assistance programs were designed to address this basic need and are legacies of the War on Poverty. Today, these programs remain on the front line of America’s antipoverty efforts. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Bartfeld, Judith
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This paper examines how SNAP functions as a component of the broader food assistance safety net for school-age children, focusing on connections between SNAP and the school meal programs at a policy level, as well patterns in children’s participation across programs. The paper has two components: In Part I, I provide an overview of the programs, highlighting both geographic variability in each of the programs, as well as structural features that create explicit, as well as potentially unintended, linkages between them. My focus is on exploring the mechanisms by which variation in access to SNAP – whether from current cross-state variation, or from broader policy changes -- can have spillover effects on school meal programs. I argue that, while the food safety net for children is national in design, it in practice varies considerably across states, and furthermore that geographic and temporal variation in SNAP policy has important ramifications for children’s access to school meals due to policy linkages between the programs. In Part II, I use recent national data to formally...

    This paper examines how SNAP functions as a component of the broader food assistance safety net for school-age children, focusing on connections between SNAP and the school meal programs at a policy level, as well patterns in children’s participation across programs. The paper has two components: In Part I, I provide an overview of the programs, highlighting both geographic variability in each of the programs, as well as structural features that create explicit, as well as potentially unintended, linkages between them. My focus is on exploring the mechanisms by which variation in access to SNAP – whether from current cross-state variation, or from broader policy changes -- can have spillover effects on school meal programs. I argue that, while the food safety net for children is national in design, it in practice varies considerably across states, and furthermore that geographic and temporal variation in SNAP policy has important ramifications for children’s access to school meals due to policy linkages between the programs. In Part II, I use recent national data to formally explore the role of the combined food assistance safety net for school-age children during and immediately after the Great Recession – a period in which the demands placed on food assistance programs for children reached historic highs. I demonstrate that there is considerable variation in the way that children access and package programs, both cross-sectionally and over time, and that food assistance programs constitute a substantial share of household resources for those families that receive them. I conclude by discussing implications of both the programmatic linkages and the empirical patterns of participation for policy and research. (author abstract) 

     

  • Individual Author: Andrews, Margaret; Smallwood, David
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2012

    In October 2011 46.2 million Americans were participating in USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, SNAP increases the purchasing power of eligible, low-income people by providing them with monthly benefits to purchase food at authorized foodstores. Just 10 years earlier, participation stood at 17.3 million. What accounts for the growth of the program over the past decade? (author abstract)

    In October 2011 46.2 million Americans were participating in USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, SNAP increases the purchasing power of eligible, low-income people by providing them with monthly benefits to purchase food at authorized foodstores. Just 10 years earlier, participation stood at 17.3 million. What accounts for the growth of the program over the past decade? (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fix, Michael
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2009

    The lore of the immigrant who comes to the United States to take advantage of our welfare system has a long history in America’s collective mythology, but it has little basis in fact. The so-called problem of immigrants on the dole was nonetheless a major concern of the 1996 welfare reform law, the impact of which is still playing out today. While legal immigrants continue to pay taxes and are eligible for the draft, welfare reform has severely limited their access to government supports in times of crisis. Edited by Michael Fix, Immigrants and Welfare rigorously assesses the welfare reform law, questions whether its immigrant provisions were ever really necessary, and examines its impact on legal immigrants’ ability to integrate into American society.

    Immigrants and Welfare draws on fields from demography and law to developmental psychology. The first part of the volume probes the politics behind the welfare reform law, its legal underpinnings, and what it may mean for integration policy. Contributor Ron Haskins makes a case for welfare reform’s ultimate success but...

    The lore of the immigrant who comes to the United States to take advantage of our welfare system has a long history in America’s collective mythology, but it has little basis in fact. The so-called problem of immigrants on the dole was nonetheless a major concern of the 1996 welfare reform law, the impact of which is still playing out today. While legal immigrants continue to pay taxes and are eligible for the draft, welfare reform has severely limited their access to government supports in times of crisis. Edited by Michael Fix, Immigrants and Welfare rigorously assesses the welfare reform law, questions whether its immigrant provisions were ever really necessary, and examines its impact on legal immigrants’ ability to integrate into American society.

    Immigrants and Welfare draws on fields from demography and law to developmental psychology. The first part of the volume probes the politics behind the welfare reform law, its legal underpinnings, and what it may mean for integration policy. Contributor Ron Haskins makes a case for welfare reform’s ultimate success but cautions that excluding noncitizen children (future workers) from benefits today will inevitably have serious repercussions for the American economy down the road. Michael Wishnie describes the implications of the law for equal protection of immigrants under the U.S. Constitution.

    The second part of the book focuses on empirical research regarding immigrants’ propensity to use benefits before the law passed, and immigrants’ use and hardship levels afterwards. Jennifer Van Hook and Frank Bean analyze immigrants’ benefit use before the law was passed in order to address the contested sociological theories that immigrants are inclined to welfare use and that it slows their assimilation. Randy Capps, Michael Fix, and Everett Henderson track trends before and after welfare reform in legal immigrants’ use of the major federal benefit programs affected by the law. Leighton Ku looks specifically at trends in food stamps and Medicaid use among noncitizen children and adults and documents the declining health insurance coverage of noncitizen parents and children. Finally, Ariel Kalil and Danielle Crosby use longitudinal data from Chicago to examine the health of children in immigrant families that left welfare.

    Even though few states took the federal government’s invitation with the 1996 welfare reform law to completely freeze legal immigrants out of the social safety net, many of the law’s most far-reaching provisions remain in place and have significant implications for immigrants. Immigrants and Welfare takes a balanced look at the politics and history of immigrant access to safety-net supports and the ongoing impacts of welfare. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Immigrants and Welfare: Overview - Michael Fix, Randy Capps, and Neeraj Kaushal

    Part I - Political and Legal Context

    Chapter 2: Limiting Welfare Benefits for Noncitizens: Emergence of Compromises - Ron Haskins

    Chapter 3: Welfare Reform after a Decade: Integration, Exclusion, and Immigration Federalism - Michael Wishnie

    Part II - Trends in Benefit Use and Reform's Impacts

    Chapter 4: Immigrant Welfare Receipt: Implications for Immigrant Settlement and Integration - Jennifer Van Hook and Frank Bean

    Chapter 5: Trends in Immigrants' Use of Public Assistance after Welfare Reform - Randy Capps, Michael Fix, and Everett Henderson

    Chapter 6: Changes in Immigrants' Use of Medicaid and Food Stamps: The Role of Eligibility and Other Factors - Leighton Ku

    Chapter 7: Welfare-Leaving and Child Health and Behavior in Immigrant and Native Families - Ariel Kalil and Danielle Crosby

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