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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen; Logie, Allison; Green, Lara Petrou
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The 1996 federal welfare reform law, which sets time limits on benefits and requires increasing numbers of clients to participate in work-related activities, was designed to encourage families to leave cash assistance for work and thereby reduce the welfare rolls. Aware of the possibility that the new legislation might negatively affect access to Medicaid, policymakers enacted Section 1931 to de-link Medicaid from welfare. Nevertheless, Medicaid enrollment has declined at a rate higher than expected since 1996, leading federal and state policymakers to become concerned that enrollment has indeed been affected by changes in cash assistance programs. Similar concerns have been raised in regard to the dramatic drop in participation in the Food Stamp Program. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) to identify state policies and procedures that appear to promote enrollment in Medicaid and/or the Food Stamp Program in the post-welfare reform era. We selected Indiana as the...

    The 1996 federal welfare reform law, which sets time limits on benefits and requires increasing numbers of clients to participate in work-related activities, was designed to encourage families to leave cash assistance for work and thereby reduce the welfare rolls. Aware of the possibility that the new legislation might negatively affect access to Medicaid, policymakers enacted Section 1931 to de-link Medicaid from welfare. Nevertheless, Medicaid enrollment has declined at a rate higher than expected since 1996, leading federal and state policymakers to become concerned that enrollment has indeed been affected by changes in cash assistance programs. Similar concerns have been raised in regard to the dramatic drop in participation in the Food Stamp Program. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) to identify state policies and procedures that appear to promote enrollment in Medicaid and/or the Food Stamp Program in the post-welfare reform era. We selected Indiana as the site for this study because the state increased Medicaid enrollment by almost 15 percent between 1998 and 1999. This report documents the results of our examination of Indiana's efforts to promote enrollment, primarily for children, in Medicaid and SCHIP and to begin to identify strategies for increasing enrollment
    in the Food Stamp Program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bailey, Andrea Leigh
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2015

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service estimates that 23.5 million people live in food deserts, over half of which are considered low-income residents. Accurately defining a food desert is crucial as the designated areas can benefit from grant opportunities and funding priority. To qualify as an urban food desert, the USDA requires that at least 500 residents or one-third of the population live outside a one-mile buffer from a supermarket as well as have a median income of less than 80% of the area average or a poverty rate of greater than 20%. Approaches in the literature to identify low accessibility areas (food deserts) include simple spatial analyses, travel cost models, grocery cost models, and activity-based models. Although using cost as a measure of access is beneficial, the travel cost components are ill-defined, especially for transit. Additionally, defining food deserts as a ratio of travel cost to median household income may more accurately reflect areas with poor accessibility to healthy food by utilizing a combined measure...

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service estimates that 23.5 million people live in food deserts, over half of which are considered low-income residents. Accurately defining a food desert is crucial as the designated areas can benefit from grant opportunities and funding priority. To qualify as an urban food desert, the USDA requires that at least 500 residents or one-third of the population live outside a one-mile buffer from a supermarket as well as have a median income of less than 80% of the area average or a poverty rate of greater than 20%. Approaches in the literature to identify low accessibility areas (food deserts) include simple spatial analyses, travel cost models, grocery cost models, and activity-based models. Although using cost as a measure of access is beneficial, the travel cost components are ill-defined, especially for transit. Additionally, defining food deserts as a ratio of travel cost to median household income may more accurately reflect areas with poor accessibility to healthy food by utilizing a combined measure instead of distinct income and access components.

    This paper develops a cost surface for auto, transit, and walking to determine the average travel cost to the nearest supermarket for each mode in Indianapolis using Spatial Analyst in ArcGIS 10.2. Given the results from ArcGIS, spatial lag models are used to model the proportion of household income spent on traveling to supermarkets as a function of socioeconomic variables. The results show that a higher crime density, no college degree, and living outside of I-465 are all correlated with poorer accessibility to healthy food. These explanatory variables had similar effects for driving and walking, but the transit network was less sensitive to education and crime and more location-dependent. For this study, working with the police department and community to reduce crime as well as expanding the transit network are both recommended as potential interventions. Results from this analysis can provide valuable insight into the reasons behind the existence of food deserts. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Waity, Julia F.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    This project is an analysis of the spatial inequality that exists between rural and urban areas in access to food assistance agencies. I gathered the population of all food pantries and soup kitchens in 24 sample counties in Indiana and mapped the location of these agencies using geographic information system analysis. Using the population center of the census block group, I measured the distance from the population center to the nearest food assistance agency. If the closest agency was more than a mile away, the census block group was considered a food assistance desert, a concept I created that draws on the food desert measurement. I found that rural high-poverty counties in my sample are the most likely to contain census block groups that are food assistance deserts, and urban high-poverty counties are the least likely to contain food assistance deserts. From these findings, I determine that access to assistance agencies needs to be increased in rural areas, especially rural areas with high-poverty rates. (Author abstract)

    This project is an analysis of the spatial inequality that exists between rural and urban areas in access to food assistance agencies. I gathered the population of all food pantries and soup kitchens in 24 sample counties in Indiana and mapped the location of these agencies using geographic information system analysis. Using the population center of the census block group, I measured the distance from the population center to the nearest food assistance agency. If the closest agency was more than a mile away, the census block group was considered a food assistance desert, a concept I created that draws on the food desert measurement. I found that rural high-poverty counties in my sample are the most likely to contain census block groups that are food assistance deserts, and urban high-poverty counties are the least likely to contain food assistance deserts. From these findings, I determine that access to assistance agencies needs to be increased in rural areas, especially rural areas with high-poverty rates. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pavetti, LaDonna; Maloy, Kathleen; Schott, Liz
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This study, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and its subcontractors, American Management Systems, Inc. and the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy, was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to identify strategies states and local welfare offices are using to promote participation in food stamps, Medicaid and SCHIP and the ongoing challenges they face in providing support to working families. (author abstract)

    This study, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and its subcontractors, American Management Systems, Inc. and the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy, was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to identify strategies states and local welfare offices are using to promote participation in food stamps, Medicaid and SCHIP and the ongoing challenges they face in providing support to working families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Edin, Kathryn; Boyd, Melody; Malbi, James; Ohls, Jim; Worthington, Julie; Greene, Sara; Redel, Nicholas; Sridharan, Swetha
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    The in-depth interviews discussed in this report consist of detailed discussions with 90 SNAP households with children in 6 States (California, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Texas) about their financial situations, their use of SNAP, and their overall food security. Interview questions focused on household expenditures and income, SNAP and food shopping habits, eating habits, nutrition, triggers of food hardship, and food-related coping strategies. (author abstract) 

    The in-depth interviews discussed in this report consist of detailed discussions with 90 SNAP households with children in 6 States (California, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Texas) about their financial situations, their use of SNAP, and their overall food security. Interview questions focused on household expenditures and income, SNAP and food shopping habits, eating habits, nutrition, triggers of food hardship, and food-related coping strategies. (author abstract) 

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