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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Kirlin, John A.; Cole, Nancy; Logan, Christopher; Kaufman, Phillip
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides both nutrition education and supplemental foods for pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women, infants, and children. These supplemental foods contain nutrients that nutritional research has found may otherwise be lacking in the diets of WIC recipients. State WIC agencies have implemented practices designed to reduce the cost of food packages containing these prescribed foods. For instance, one of the WIC program's primary cost-saving practices is negotiating rebate contracts with manufacturers of infant formula. Additional practices include limiting authorized vendors to stores with lower food prices; limiting approved brands, package sizes, forms, or prices; and negotiating rebates with food manufacturers or suppliers. There is concern that these practices may inadvertently counter the program's goal of providing supplemental foods and nutrition education. Based on a review of cost-containment practices in six States, including interviews with the various stakeholders and analysis of...

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides both nutrition education and supplemental foods for pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women, infants, and children. These supplemental foods contain nutrients that nutritional research has found may otherwise be lacking in the diets of WIC recipients. State WIC agencies have implemented practices designed to reduce the cost of food packages containing these prescribed foods. For instance, one of the WIC program's primary cost-saving practices is negotiating rebate contracts with manufacturers of infant formula. Additional practices include limiting authorized vendors to stores with lower food prices; limiting approved brands, package sizes, forms, or prices; and negotiating rebates with food manufacturers or suppliers. There is concern that these practices may inadvertently counter the program's goal of providing supplemental foods and nutrition education. Based on a review of cost-containment practices in six States, including interviews with the various stakeholders and analysis of WIC administrative files, the study draws three major conclusions: (1) cost-containment practices reduced average food package costs by 0.2 to 21.4 percent, depending on practices implemented and local conditions; (2) the cost-containment practices had few adverse outcomes for WIC participants; and (3) administrative costs of the practices were low, averaging about 1.5 percent of food package savings. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pavetti, LaDonna; Maloy, Kathleen; Schott, Liz
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This study, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and its subcontractors, American Management Systems, Inc. and the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy, was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to identify strategies states and local welfare offices are using to promote participation in food stamps, Medicaid and SCHIP and the ongoing challenges they face in providing support to working families. (author abstract)

    This study, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and its subcontractors, American Management Systems, Inc. and the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy, was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to identify strategies states and local welfare offices are using to promote participation in food stamps, Medicaid and SCHIP and the ongoing challenges they face in providing support to working families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Collins, Ann M.; Briefel, Ronette; Klerman, Jacob A.; Bell, Stephen; Bellotti, Jeanne; Logan, Christopher W.; Gordon, Anne; Wolfe, Anne; Rowe, Gretchen; McLaughlin, Steven M.; Enver, Ayesha; Fernandes, Meena; Wolfson, Carrie; Komarovsky, Marina; Cabili, Charlotte; Owens, Cheryl
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Children’s development, health, and well-being depend on access to a safe and secure source of food. In 2010, 8.0 million households with children were food insecure (one in five such households) and nearly half of these, 3.9 million, included children who were food insecure at times during the year (Coleman-Jensen et al., 2011). Nearly 8.5 million children lived in households with food-insecure children, and 1.0 million children lived in households with very low food security among children (VLFS-C).

    To address needs in the summer, when school is out of session, the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals and snacks to children who receive the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) or the School Breakfast Program (SBP) during the school year. The SFSP enriches the lives of millions of low-income children in communities across the U.S., however, it reaches far fewer children than the school programs (FNS 2011a; Gordon and Briefel, 2003; Food Research and Action Center, 2011). Many communities also provide other types of food assistance and child programs during the...

    Children’s development, health, and well-being depend on access to a safe and secure source of food. In 2010, 8.0 million households with children were food insecure (one in five such households) and nearly half of these, 3.9 million, included children who were food insecure at times during the year (Coleman-Jensen et al., 2011). Nearly 8.5 million children lived in households with food-insecure children, and 1.0 million children lived in households with very low food security among children (VLFS-C).

    To address needs in the summer, when school is out of session, the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals and snacks to children who receive the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) or the School Breakfast Program (SBP) during the school year. The SFSP enriches the lives of millions of low-income children in communities across the U.S., however, it reaches far fewer children than the school programs (FNS 2011a; Gordon and Briefel, 2003; Food Research and Action Center, 2011). Many communities also provide other types of food assistance and child programs during the summer months to meet the nutritional needs of low-income children. Locations and resources are limited, though, so there are still gaps in many communities.

    As part of its efforts to end child hunger, the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is studying alternative approaches to providing food assistance to children in the summer months. The 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-80) authorized and provided funding for USDA to implement and rigorously evaluate the Summer Food for Children Demonstration, one component of which is the Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children (SEBTC). FNS contracted with Abt Associates, Mathematica Policy Research, and Maximus to study how the demonstration program has unfolded over time and its impact on program participants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: DeRenzis, Brooke; Kaz, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-...

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs at the state level:

    • Staff and stakeholders should work with SNAP E&T agency leadership to develop a vision for a skills-focused program and implement a strategy to achieve that vision.

    • States should use pilot programs to test and refine strategies for expanding SNAP E&T programs.

    • SNAP E&T programs should build on the strengths and experience of existing workforce development efforts, and should align SNAP E&T with other programs, such as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

    • SNAP E&T programs should use federal funding and administrative tools to partner with community colleges and community-based organizations as service providers.

    The brief also identifies a set of common challenges in developing skills-based SNAP E&T programs and makes recommendations for how state SNAP E&T agencies can address them. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Khadduri, Jill; Burt, Martha R.; Walton, Douglas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    What are the patterns of benefit receipt among families who experience homelessness? This brief uses data collected for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study to analyze patterns of receipt of TANF cash assistance, SNAP food assistance, and publicly funded health insurance benefits among these families, with a focus on the characteristics of those receiving and not receiving benefits. The brief:

    • Examines whether family characteristics, including age, marital status, and demographic characteristics relate to benefit receipt
    • Explores the relationship between benefit receipt and housing instability following an initial shelter stay
    • Examines whether help accessing benefits is related to families’ TANF receipt. (Author abstract) 

    What are the patterns of benefit receipt among families who experience homelessness? This brief uses data collected for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study to analyze patterns of receipt of TANF cash assistance, SNAP food assistance, and publicly funded health insurance benefits among these families, with a focus on the characteristics of those receiving and not receiving benefits. The brief:

    • Examines whether family characteristics, including age, marital status, and demographic characteristics relate to benefit receipt
    • Explores the relationship between benefit receipt and housing instability following an initial shelter stay
    • Examines whether help accessing benefits is related to families’ TANF receipt. (Author abstract) 

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