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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Leroy, Jef; Ruel, Marie; Verhofstadt, Ellen
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    The authors reviewed the evidence regarding the impact of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes on child nutrition outcomes, using a programme theory framework. They developed a programme impact model and synthesised evidence regarding the pathways through which CCTs may improve child nutrition. CCT programmes significantly improve child anthropometry but have very little impact on micronutrient status. The programmes also have a positive impact on several of the outcomes in the pathways to improved nutrition. The authors found an enormous gap in knowledge about the mechanisms by which CCT programmes improve nutrition. In order to reach their full potential, the programmes need to have a better defined set of nutrition actions grounded in programme theory. (author abstract)

    The authors reviewed the evidence regarding the impact of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes on child nutrition outcomes, using a programme theory framework. They developed a programme impact model and synthesised evidence regarding the pathways through which CCTs may improve child nutrition. CCT programmes significantly improve child anthropometry but have very little impact on micronutrient status. The programmes also have a positive impact on several of the outcomes in the pathways to improved nutrition. The authors found an enormous gap in knowledge about the mechanisms by which CCT programmes improve nutrition. In order to reach their full potential, the programmes need to have a better defined set of nutrition actions grounded in programme theory. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Driessen, C. E.; Cameron, A. J.; Thornton, L. E.; Lai, S. K.; Barnett, L. M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of...

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N.; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H.; Reilly, John J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic.

    Recent Findings Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls’ maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school.

    Summary Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity. (Author...

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic.

    Recent Findings Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls’ maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school.

    Summary Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Oosterhoff, M.; Joore, M.; Ferreira, I.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Primary prevention of childhood obesity and related hypertension is warrant given that both risk factors are intertwined and track into adulthood. This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the impact of school-based lifestyle interventions on children's body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. We searched databases and prior reviews. Eligibility criteria were the following: randomized controlled trial design, evaluation of a school-based intervention, targeting children aged 4-12 years, reporting on BMI and/or related cardiovascular risk factors, reporting data on at least one follow-up moment. The effects on BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate three-level random effects models. A total of 85 RCTs (91 papers) were included in the meta-analyses. In univariate models, the pooled effects were -0.072 for BMI, -0.183 for SBP and -0.071 for DBP. In multivariate analyses, the pooled effects of interventions were -0.054 for BMI, -0.182 for SBP and -0.144 for DBP. Parental involvement...

    Primary prevention of childhood obesity and related hypertension is warrant given that both risk factors are intertwined and track into adulthood. This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the impact of school-based lifestyle interventions on children's body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. We searched databases and prior reviews. Eligibility criteria were the following: randomized controlled trial design, evaluation of a school-based intervention, targeting children aged 4-12 years, reporting on BMI and/or related cardiovascular risk factors, reporting data on at least one follow-up moment. The effects on BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate three-level random effects models. A total of 85 RCTs (91 papers) were included in the meta-analyses. In univariate models, the pooled effects were -0.072 for BMI, -0.183 for SBP and -0.071 for DBP. In multivariate analyses, the pooled effects of interventions were -0.054 for BMI, -0.182 for SBP and -0.144 for DBP. Parental involvement accentuated the beneficial effects of interventions. School-based lifestyle prevention interventions result in beneficial changes in children's BMI and blood pressure, and the effects on the latter may be stronger than and accrue independently from those in the former. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sobol-Goldberg, Shira; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Gross, Revital
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Objective

    Attempts have been made to reduce childhood obesity through school-based programs. Systematic reviews of studies until 2006 reported a lack of consistency about effectiveness of such programs. Presented is an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Design and Methods

    Replication of methodology used in previous comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of school-based obesity prevention programs covering studies until 2006 to review studies thru January 2012.

    Results

    Based on 32 studies (n = 52,109), programs were mildly effective in reducing BMI relative to controls not receiving intervention. Studies of children had significant intervention effects, those of teenagers did not, though the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Meta-regression showed a significant linear hierarchy of studies with the largest effects for comprehensive programs more than 1 year long that aimed to provide information on nutrition...

    Objective

    Attempts have been made to reduce childhood obesity through school-based programs. Systematic reviews of studies until 2006 reported a lack of consistency about effectiveness of such programs. Presented is an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Design and Methods

    Replication of methodology used in previous comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of school-based obesity prevention programs covering studies until 2006 to review studies thru January 2012.

    Results

    Based on 32 studies (n = 52,109), programs were mildly effective in reducing BMI relative to controls not receiving intervention. Studies of children had significant intervention effects, those of teenagers did not, though the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Meta-regression showed a significant linear hierarchy of studies with the largest effects for comprehensive programs more than 1 year long that aimed to provide information on nutrition and physical activity, change attitudes, monitor behavior, modify environment, involve parents, increase physical activity and improve diet, particularly among children.

    Conclusions

    Unlike earlier studies, more recent studies showed convincing evidence that school-based prevention interventions are at least mildly effective in reducing BMI in children, possibly because these newer studies tended to be longer, more comprehensive and included parental support. (Author abstract)