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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Scherpf, Erik
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This study investigates young adults’ first experience with the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), examining the determinants of first program entry and exit. It makes use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which follows respondents from adolescence into adulthood. This study estimates discrete-time hazard models of program entry and exit with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Unobserved heterogeneity is modeled using both a parametric approach, in which a gamma distribution is assumed, and a non-parametric approach with two mass points. The results are broadly consistent across models, indicating that, for the cohort in this study, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity does not substantially alter the results from a basic discrete-time hazard model. The results show that expanded categorical eligibility increased the hazard of SNAP entry in the six years following high school, while the absence of vehicle exclusions decreased the entry hazard. For program exit, however, state SNAP policies had no statistically significant...

    This study investigates young adults’ first experience with the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), examining the determinants of first program entry and exit. It makes use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which follows respondents from adolescence into adulthood. This study estimates discrete-time hazard models of program entry and exit with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Unobserved heterogeneity is modeled using both a parametric approach, in which a gamma distribution is assumed, and a non-parametric approach with two mass points. The results are broadly consistent across models, indicating that, for the cohort in this study, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity does not substantially alter the results from a basic discrete-time hazard model. The results show that expanded categorical eligibility increased the hazard of SNAP entry in the six years following high school, while the absence of vehicle exclusions decreased the entry hazard. For program exit, however, state SNAP policies had no statistically significant effect. The recent birth of a child, prior participation in WIC and low educational attainment were each strongly associated with an increased “risk” of SNAP entry, and decreased “risk” of exit. Somewhat, surprisingly, higher unemployment rates in the local labor market were not significantly associated with higher entry risk, but were strongly associated with a lower exit risk. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Burke, Mike; Sims, Kate; Anderson, Signe; FirtzSimons, Crystal; Hewins, Jessie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    When the school year ends, millions of low-income children lose access to the school breakfasts and lunches they rely on during the school year. The federal Summer Nutrition Programs—the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP)—are designed to replace the regular school year programs, providing low-income children access to the nutritious meals they need to keep hunger at bay and remain healthy throughout the summer. The meals provided through the Summer Nutrition Programs also play an important role in drawing children into educational, enrichment, and recreational programming that keep them learning, engaged, active, safe, and moving during school vacation. (author abstract)

    When the school year ends, millions of low-income children lose access to the school breakfasts and lunches they rely on during the school year. The federal Summer Nutrition Programs—the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP)—are designed to replace the regular school year programs, providing low-income children access to the nutritious meals they need to keep hunger at bay and remain healthy throughout the summer. The meals provided through the Summer Nutrition Programs also play an important role in drawing children into educational, enrichment, and recreational programming that keep them learning, engaged, active, safe, and moving during school vacation. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hoefer, Richard; Curry, Carolyn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    America's vulnerable populations face increasing levels of food insecurity, hunger and poverty as social protection programs are attacked and delegitimized. This paper examines the changes in social protection policy as a whole but focuses on the extreme case of food security. We first look at the interrelated concepts and definitions of food security, hunger and poverty. Next, we describe governmental programs addressing food security issues. We end with a discussion of food security and social protection, and the state of vulnerability among low-income persons currently and in the near future. (author abstract)

    America's vulnerable populations face increasing levels of food insecurity, hunger and poverty as social protection programs are attacked and delegitimized. This paper examines the changes in social protection policy as a whole but focuses on the extreme case of food security. We first look at the interrelated concepts and definitions of food security, hunger and poverty. Next, we describe governmental programs addressing food security issues. We end with a discussion of food security and social protection, and the state of vulnerability among low-income persons currently and in the near future. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following:

    - Medicaid,

    - The low-income subsidy (LIS) for Part D of Medicare (the part of Medicare that provides prescription drug benefits),

    - The refundable portion of the earned income tax credit (EITC),

    - The refundable portion of the child tax credit (CTC),

    - Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

    - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),

    - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp program),

    - Child nutrition programs,

    - Housing assistance programs, and

    - The Federal Pell Grant Program.

    As shown in this report and an accompanying infographic, in 2012, federal spending on those programs and tax credits...

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following:

    - Medicaid,

    - The low-income subsidy (LIS) for Part D of Medicare (the part of Medicare that provides prescription drug benefits),

    - The refundable portion of the earned income tax credit (EITC),

    - The refundable portion of the child tax credit (CTC),

    - Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

    - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF),

    - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp program),

    - Child nutrition programs,

    - Housing assistance programs, and

    - The Federal Pell Grant Program.

    As shown in this report and an accompanying infographic, in 2012, federal spending on those programs and tax credits totaled $588 billion. (Certain larger federal benefit programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, are not considered means-tested programs because they are not limited to people with specific amounts of income or assets.)

    Total federal spending on those 10 programs (adjusted to exclude the effects of inflation) rose more than tenfold—or by an average of about 6 percent a year—in the four decades since 1972 (when only half of the programs existed). As a share of the economy, federal spending on those programs grew from 1 percent to almost 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) over that period. (For ease of presentation, this report frequently uses the term “programs” to encompass both the spending programs and the tax credits.) (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hoynes, Hilary W.; Page, Marianne E. ; Huff Stevens, Ann
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    The goal of federal food and nutrition programs in the United States is to improve the nutritional well-being and health of low income families. A large body of literature evaluates the extent to which the Supplemental Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC) has accomplished this goal, but most studies have been based on research designs that compare program participants to non-participants. If selection into these programs is non-random then such comparisons will lead to biased estimates of the program’s true effects. In this study we use the rollout of the WIC program across counties to estimate the impact of the program on infant health. We find that the implementation of WIC lead to an increase in average birthweight and a decrease in the fraction of births that are classified as low birthweight. We find no evidence that these estimates are driven by changes in fertility. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that the initiation of WIC lead to a ten percent increase in the birthweight of infants born to participating mothers. (author abstract)

    The goal of federal food and nutrition programs in the United States is to improve the nutritional well-being and health of low income families. A large body of literature evaluates the extent to which the Supplemental Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC) has accomplished this goal, but most studies have been based on research designs that compare program participants to non-participants. If selection into these programs is non-random then such comparisons will lead to biased estimates of the program’s true effects. In this study we use the rollout of the WIC program across counties to estimate the impact of the program on infant health. We find that the implementation of WIC lead to an increase in average birthweight and a decrease in the fraction of births that are classified as low birthweight. We find no evidence that these estimates are driven by changes in fertility. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that the initiation of WIC lead to a ten percent increase in the birthweight of infants born to participating mothers. (author abstract)

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