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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: WorkFirst Subcabinet
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2011

    Washington State began WorkFirst, the state’s Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, in August 1997. Now in its 13th year of operation, the program provides cash grants, medical assistance, welfare -to-work services, and work supports (including subsidized child care through the Working Connections Child Care program) to eligible low-income families. The goal of WorkFirst is to help low-income families build a pathway that can lead them out of poverty and toward economic security.

    With the signing of Engrossed Second Substitute House Bill 3141 on April 1, 2010, Governor Christine Gregoire directed the WorkFirst Subcabinet to “examine how to best meet the challenges for WorkFirst families to obtain employment and achieve family self-sufficiency,” and provide a report and plan to implement evidence-based best practices that are sustainable within a block grant program. The Governor challenged the WorkFirst Subcabinet to think anew and to ‘reboot’ WorkFirst for the 21st century. (author abstract)

    Washington State began WorkFirst, the state’s Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, in August 1997. Now in its 13th year of operation, the program provides cash grants, medical assistance, welfare -to-work services, and work supports (including subsidized child care through the Working Connections Child Care program) to eligible low-income families. The goal of WorkFirst is to help low-income families build a pathway that can lead them out of poverty and toward economic security.

    With the signing of Engrossed Second Substitute House Bill 3141 on April 1, 2010, Governor Christine Gregoire directed the WorkFirst Subcabinet to “examine how to best meet the challenges for WorkFirst families to obtain employment and achieve family self-sufficiency,” and provide a report and plan to implement evidence-based best practices that are sustainable within a block grant program. The Governor challenged the WorkFirst Subcabinet to think anew and to ‘reboot’ WorkFirst for the 21st century. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ha, Yoonsook; Ybarra, Marci
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Welfare reform devolved authority to states in designing and implementing Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and child care subsidy programs, thereby creating substantial variation in both programs across states. TANF and child care subsidy programs are, in theory, designed to work together to support employment among low-income families, yet we have little information on how these two programs collectively impact work and family life among the target population. This study examines the intensity of TANF work requirements and generosity of child care subsidy provisions across states and the interaction of the two programs. Overall, we find that states with stringent work requirements do not typically provide generous child care subsidies. This article discusses the implications for families, policy, and social work practice in light of our findings. (author abstract)

    Welfare reform devolved authority to states in designing and implementing Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and child care subsidy programs, thereby creating substantial variation in both programs across states. TANF and child care subsidy programs are, in theory, designed to work together to support employment among low-income families, yet we have little information on how these two programs collectively impact work and family life among the target population. This study examines the intensity of TANF work requirements and generosity of child care subsidy provisions across states and the interaction of the two programs. Overall, we find that states with stringent work requirements do not typically provide generous child care subsidies. This article discusses the implications for families, policy, and social work practice in light of our findings. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Holl, Jane L.; Oh, Elissa H.; Yoo, Joan; Amsden, Laura B.; Sohn, Min-Woong
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    We examined how maternal work and welfare receipt are associated with children receiving recommended pediatric preventive care services. We identified American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended preventive care visits from medical records of children in the 1999-2004 Illinois Families Study: Child Well-Being. We used Illinois administrative data to identify whether mothers received welfare or worked during the period the visit was recommended, and we analyzed the child visit data using random-intercept logistic regressions that adjusted for child, maternal, and visit-specific characteristics. The 485 children (95%) meeting inclusion criteria made 41% of their recommended visits. Children were 60% more likely (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 2.01) to make recommended visits when mothers received welfare but did not work compared with when mothers did not receive welfare and did not work. Children were 25% less likely (AOR= 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.94) to make preventive care visits during periods when mothers received welfare and worked...

    We examined how maternal work and welfare receipt are associated with children receiving recommended pediatric preventive care services. We identified American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended preventive care visits from medical records of children in the 1999-2004 Illinois Families Study: Child Well-Being. We used Illinois administrative data to identify whether mothers received welfare or worked during the period the visit was recommended, and we analyzed the child visit data using random-intercept logistic regressions that adjusted for child, maternal, and visit-specific characteristics. The 485 children (95%) meeting inclusion criteria made 41% of their recommended visits. Children were 60% more likely (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 2.01) to make recommended visits when mothers received welfare but did not work compared with when mothers did not receive welfare and did not work. Children were 25% less likely (AOR= 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.94) to make preventive care visits during periods when mothers received welfare and worked compared with welfare only periods. The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families maternal work requirement may be a barrier to receiving recommended preventive pediatric health care. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hill, Heather D.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    In some states, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program offers the equivalent of paid maternity leave without job protection to low-income, single mothers of infants. Age-of-youngest-child (AYC) exemptions waive work requirements for TANF recipients after the birth of a child, generally for 3–12 months, depending on the state. This study uses data from the Current Population Survey (1998–2008) to examine whether the availability and length of AYC exemptions are predictive of rates of employment, work, and full-time work among low-educated single mothers with infants. The analysis uses the difference-in-differences (DD) technique, a comparison of outcomes under different policy treatments and between treatment and comparison groups. The results suggest that AYC exemptions are not related to employment or work rates but that living in a state with no AYC exemption is strongly and positively associated with rates of full-time work among low-educated mothers with infants.(author abstract)

    In some states, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program offers the equivalent of paid maternity leave without job protection to low-income, single mothers of infants. Age-of-youngest-child (AYC) exemptions waive work requirements for TANF recipients after the birth of a child, generally for 3–12 months, depending on the state. This study uses data from the Current Population Survey (1998–2008) to examine whether the availability and length of AYC exemptions are predictive of rates of employment, work, and full-time work among low-educated single mothers with infants. The analysis uses the difference-in-differences (DD) technique, a comparison of outcomes under different policy treatments and between treatment and comparison groups. The results suggest that AYC exemptions are not related to employment or work rates but that living in a state with no AYC exemption is strongly and positively associated with rates of full-time work among low-educated mothers with infants.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Danielson, Caroline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    This Occasional Paper examines data for the period 2001-2004 submitted by states as evidence of their compliance with federal requirements in order to gain insight into the portion of the CalWORKs caseload required to participate in federally-approved activities, and especially those not meeting work participation requirements. It focuses solely on the single-parent caseload.(PPIP abstract)

    This Occasional Paper examines data for the period 2001-2004 submitted by states as evidence of their compliance with federal requirements in order to gain insight into the portion of the CalWORKs caseload required to participate in federally-approved activities, and especially those not meeting work participation requirements. It focuses solely on the single-parent caseload.(PPIP abstract)

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