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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Jacobson, Louis; LaLonde, Robert J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Training programs provide opportunities for low-income individuals to qualify for better jobs and enter the middle class. These programs also provide opportunities for workers who lost long-held jobs to qualify for new positions that can offset a substantial fraction of their earnings losses. Although millions of workers seek out career and technical training options in the pursuit of financial security and better lives, many ultimately choose programs that do not suit their needs. Some individuals do not complete their training programs, some find that their new skills do not match the needs of local employers, while many others, uncertain of the outcomes, hesitate to invest time and money into training programs altogether. Too many workers are making poor choices in training, but fortunately, this problem can be resolved by helping workers select programs that they are more likely to complete and that are more likely to raise their earnings potential. This paper proposes a state-by-state solution, relying on a competitive framework to encourage states to help prospective...

    Training programs provide opportunities for low-income individuals to qualify for better jobs and enter the middle class. These programs also provide opportunities for workers who lost long-held jobs to qualify for new positions that can offset a substantial fraction of their earnings losses. Although millions of workers seek out career and technical training options in the pursuit of financial security and better lives, many ultimately choose programs that do not suit their needs. Some individuals do not complete their training programs, some find that their new skills do not match the needs of local employers, while many others, uncertain of the outcomes, hesitate to invest time and money into training programs altogether. Too many workers are making poor choices in training, but fortunately, this problem can be resolved by helping workers select programs that they are more likely to complete and that are more likely to raise their earnings potential. This paper proposes a state-by-state solution, relying on a competitive framework to encourage states to help prospective trainees make better-informed choices. The plan will increase the return on training investments by developing the data and measures necessary to provide the information prospective trainees need, by presenting the information in user-friendly “report cards,” by providing help for prospective trainees to use the information effectively, and by creating incentives for states to implement permanent information systems once they prove cost-effective. Using a mix of online systems coupled with assistance from career counselors, the ultimate goal of this proposal is to provide unambiguous evidence about how information systems can improve training outcomes for prospective trainees. With the earnings divide between skilled and unskilled workers at a historic high, it is imperative that we raise overall workforce skills in order to enhance America’s competitiveness and ensure economic growth for all Americans. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schumacher, Rachel
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2009

    Early experiences and relationships – including those in child care settings—help shape the architecture of the brain. All babies and toddlers in child care need nurturing, responsive providers and caregivers they can trust to care for them as they grow and learn. To support this goal, CLASP recommends that states seek to ensure access to specialized professional development for providers working with infants and toddlers, including participation in higher education programs, community-level training, ongoing individualized consultations, and access to appropriate information and supports for caregivers, so that all those who care for infants and toddlers in all settings understand and implement a core body of knowledge and skills.

    This document presents research supporting the recommendation to provide access to training, education, and ongoing supports. (author abstract)

    Early experiences and relationships – including those in child care settings—help shape the architecture of the brain. All babies and toddlers in child care need nurturing, responsive providers and caregivers they can trust to care for them as they grow and learn. To support this goal, CLASP recommends that states seek to ensure access to specialized professional development for providers working with infants and toddlers, including participation in higher education programs, community-level training, ongoing individualized consultations, and access to appropriate information and supports for caregivers, so that all those who care for infants and toddlers in all settings understand and implement a core body of knowledge and skills.

    This document presents research supporting the recommendation to provide access to training, education, and ongoing supports. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Carnevale, Anthony P.; Jayasundera, Tamara; Hanson, Andrew R.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Getting a Bachelor's degree is the best way for most workers to make middle-class wages. In this report, however, we show there are 29 million jobs (21% of all jobs) for workers without Bachelor's degrees. The report also details five major sub-baccalaureate, career and technical education (CTE) pathways: employer-based training, industry-based certifications, apprenticeships, postsecondary certificates, and associate's degrees. (author abstract)

    Getting a Bachelor's degree is the best way for most workers to make middle-class wages. In this report, however, we show there are 29 million jobs (21% of all jobs) for workers without Bachelor's degrees. The report also details five major sub-baccalaureate, career and technical education (CTE) pathways: employer-based training, industry-based certifications, apprenticeships, postsecondary certificates, and associate's degrees. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schochet, Peter Z.; Burghardt, John A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    Since the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act, performance measurement systems based on short-term program outcomes have been increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of federal programs. This paper examines the association between program performance measures and long-term program impacts, using nine-year follow-up data from a recent large-scale, national experimental evaluation of Job Corps, the nation’s largest federal job training program for disadvantaged youths. Job Corps is an important test case because it uses a comprehensive performance system that is widely emulated. We find that impacts on key outcomes are not associated with measured center performance levels. Participants in higher performing centers had better outcomes; however, the same pattern holds for comparable controls. Thus, the performance measurement system is not achieving the goal of ranking and rewarding centers on the basis of their ability to improve participant outcomes relative to what these outcomes would have been otherwise. (author abstract)

    Since the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act, performance measurement systems based on short-term program outcomes have been increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of federal programs. This paper examines the association between program performance measures and long-term program impacts, using nine-year follow-up data from a recent large-scale, national experimental evaluation of Job Corps, the nation’s largest federal job training program for disadvantaged youths. Job Corps is an important test case because it uses a comprehensive performance system that is widely emulated. We find that impacts on key outcomes are not associated with measured center performance levels. Participants in higher performing centers had better outcomes; however, the same pattern holds for comparable controls. Thus, the performance measurement system is not achieving the goal of ranking and rewarding centers on the basis of their ability to improve participant outcomes relative to what these outcomes would have been otherwise. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there is considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. (author abstract)

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there is considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. (author abstract)

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