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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Enchauteguai, Maria E.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The unemployment insurance system is composed of state programs guided by broad federal principles, with funding and eligibility rules left to the states. The participation of employers injects a good deal of contentiousness and errors, while the principle of "no fault of their own" limits the eligibility of many workers who separate from their jobs for family and health reasons or because their temporary job ended. This system leaves many disadvantaged workers behind to the extent that only between 10 and 36 percent of unemployed workers with labor market disadvantages collected benefits in 2010, in comparison to 69 percent of non-disadvantaged workers. (author abstract)

    The unemployment insurance system is composed of state programs guided by broad federal principles, with funding and eligibility rules left to the states. The participation of employers injects a good deal of contentiousness and errors, while the principle of "no fault of their own" limits the eligibility of many workers who separate from their jobs for family and health reasons or because their temporary job ended. This system leaves many disadvantaged workers behind to the extent that only between 10 and 36 percent of unemployed workers with labor market disadvantages collected benefits in 2010, in comparison to 69 percent of non-disadvantaged workers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rangarajan, Anu ; Razafindrakoto, Carol; Corson, Walter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    This study, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the New Jersey Department of Human Services (NJDHS) and with the support of the New Jersey Department of Labor (NJDOL), examines the extent to which former welfare recipients are likely to be eligible for UI, and the extent to which former recipients who leave welfare and find work file UI claims. In particular, it examines such questions as: What is the rate of monetary UI eligibility among former welfare recipients who leave welfare and find work, and how does this rate change over time? How are nonmonetary factors likely to affect eligibility? For what benefit amounts are these individuals likely to be eligible? How sensitive are UI monetary eligibility rates to varying program parameters? How many former welfare recipients actually file UI claims and receive payments?

    Our study of these and related questions is based on data from the Work First New Jersey (WFNJ) evaluation. The WFNJ evaluation is a comprehensive, five-year study, funded by NJDHS, which tracks a representative statewide sample of...

    This study, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the New Jersey Department of Human Services (NJDHS) and with the support of the New Jersey Department of Labor (NJDOL), examines the extent to which former welfare recipients are likely to be eligible for UI, and the extent to which former recipients who leave welfare and find work file UI claims. In particular, it examines such questions as: What is the rate of monetary UI eligibility among former welfare recipients who leave welfare and find work, and how does this rate change over time? How are nonmonetary factors likely to affect eligibility? For what benefit amounts are these individuals likely to be eligible? How sensitive are UI monetary eligibility rates to varying program parameters? How many former welfare recipients actually file UI claims and receive payments?

    Our study of these and related questions is based on data from the Work First New Jersey (WFNJ) evaluation. The WFNJ evaluation is a comprehensive, five-year study, funded by NJDHS, which tracks a representative statewide sample of 2,000 welfare recipients who received TANF in New Jersey during the first 18 months under the new welfare rules, between July 1997 and December 1998. These recipients are being tracked through a series of five annual surveys, as well as through administrative records data. For this UI study, we examine the subset of welfare recipients who left TANF at any time before December 1999, and were employed around the time of TANF exit. We have data on employment and earnings for these individuals covering the two-year period after TANF exit, and data on UI claims over the three-year period after TANF exit.2 Wage records and UI claims data were provided by the New Jersey Department of Labor, and TANF administrative data by the Division of Family Development of NJDHS. (author summary)

  • Individual Author: Brown, Kay E.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The recession of 2007 to 2009 was the most severe in the United States since the 1930s, resulting in a net loss of 7.5 million jobs. Workers who lose a job through no fault of their own (referred to as “displaced workers” in this report) may turn to financial assistance offered through the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program. Currently, through benefit extensions authorized by Congress, eligible displaced workers can receive UI benefits for up to 99 weeks in certain states. However, with the slow economic recovery, some may exhaust UI benefits without finding a new job. This raises questions about how Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), a program that provides cash assistance to low-income families with children, and other support programs are aiding those who have exhausted UI benefits.

    GAO was asked to examine: (1) how many of the workers who lost jobs in the recession received and exhausted UI; (2)what are the economic circumstances of those who exhausted UI, and how many received support from TANF and other programs; and (3) the extent to which UI agencies...

    The recession of 2007 to 2009 was the most severe in the United States since the 1930s, resulting in a net loss of 7.5 million jobs. Workers who lose a job through no fault of their own (referred to as “displaced workers” in this report) may turn to financial assistance offered through the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program. Currently, through benefit extensions authorized by Congress, eligible displaced workers can receive UI benefits for up to 99 weeks in certain states. However, with the slow economic recovery, some may exhaust UI benefits without finding a new job. This raises questions about how Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), a program that provides cash assistance to low-income families with children, and other support programs are aiding those who have exhausted UI benefits.

    GAO was asked to examine: (1) how many of the workers who lost jobs in the recession received and exhausted UI; (2)what are the economic circumstances of those who exhausted UI, and how many received support from TANF and other programs; and (3) the extent to which UI agencies refer those exhausting UI to other support programs. GAO analyzed data from the Current Population Survey’s 2008 and 2010 Displaced Worker Supplements and the 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement and data from the Departments of Labor and Health and Human Services. GAO also surveyed 51 state UI agencies and conducted interviews with 16 state TANF agencies, selected to reflect a range of unemployment rate changes in recent years. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nilsen, Sigurd R
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Since 1935, the welfare and unemployment insurance (UI) programs have operated side-by-side as major parts of the nation’s social safety net. The welfare program provides cash assistance to needy families without means of support, while UI provides cash assistance to people temporarily unemployed. In 1996, federal legislation fundamentally changed the welfare program, putting time limits on how long most people can receive cash assistance and generally requiring recipients to engage in work activities to qualify for income support. Since that time, the welfare rolls have dropped dramatically, and large numbers of welfare recipients have started working, many in low-wage jobs. With this radical shift, the UI program is left as a more significant element of the social safety net, particularly for low-income families formerly assisted by the welfare program.

    In contrast to the welfare program, which focuses on assistance to needy families with children, UI is a social insurance program intended to partially replace lost earnings for people with prior work experience who...

    Since 1935, the welfare and unemployment insurance (UI) programs have operated side-by-side as major parts of the nation’s social safety net. The welfare program provides cash assistance to needy families without means of support, while UI provides cash assistance to people temporarily unemployed. In 1996, federal legislation fundamentally changed the welfare program, putting time limits on how long most people can receive cash assistance and generally requiring recipients to engage in work activities to qualify for income support. Since that time, the welfare rolls have dropped dramatically, and large numbers of welfare recipients have started working, many in low-wage jobs. With this radical shift, the UI program is left as a more significant element of the social safety net, particularly for low-income families formerly assisted by the welfare program.

    In contrast to the welfare program, which focuses on assistance to needy families with children, UI is a social insurance program intended to partially replace lost earnings for people with prior work experience who become involuntarily unemployed and who are able, available, and actively seeking work. Premiums are paid in advance by employers as a payroll tax on wages earned by their employees. Although state law varies, this payroll tax is applied to, at a minimum, the first $7,000 of most employees’ annual earnings. State law specifies the factors (for example, minimum earnings or employment period) that qualify a person to collect UI benefits.

    To conduct our study, we used a combination of methods. To determine the long-term trends in the usage of the UI program, we analyzed data from the Department of Labor. To compare the likelihood that low-wage workers receive UI benefits with that of other workers, we examined data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a national database maintained by the Bureau of the Census. For our purposes, SIPP data were available only for the 4-year period 1992 through 1995; to extend our analysis through the rest of the decade, we supplemented SIPP data with UI administrative data from the Department of Labor and with data from a national database jointly maintained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of the Census—the Current Population Survey (CPS). To determine factors that may affect the likelihood a person will receive UI benefits, we reviewed the available literature. We also surveyed UI program directors for the 50 states on eligibility criteria that may affect low-wage workers in general and former welfare recipients in particular. To obtain detailed information on state policies and practices, we talked with officials in the four most populous states—California, Florida, New York, and Texas—as well as collected data on other states nationwide. A fuller description of our methodology is included in appendix I. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Finifter, David; Prell, Mark A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This report provides nationally representative annual estimates for 2004-09 of households’ multi-program or “joint” participation patterns in both the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program, including breakouts of household types categorized by household income relative to poverty, race/ethnicity, and education level. SNAP and UI are two strands of the Nation’s recessionary safety net—the subset of safety-net programs for which participation is responsive to the business cycle. Using data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement to the Current Population Survey, the study found that an estimated 14.4 percent of SNAP households also received UI at some time in 2009 (a recessionary year), an increase of 6.6 percentage points from 2005 (a full-employment year). Conversely, an estimated 13.4 percent of UI households also received SNAP in 2009, an increase of 2.3 percentage points from 2005. SNAP households with lower annual income relative to poverty or with householders who did not complete high school were ...

    This report provides nationally representative annual estimates for 2004-09 of households’ multi-program or “joint” participation patterns in both the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program, including breakouts of household types categorized by household income relative to poverty, race/ethnicity, and education level. SNAP and UI are two strands of the Nation’s recessionary safety net—the subset of safety-net programs for which participation is responsive to the business cycle. Using data from the Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement to the Current Population Survey, the study found that an estimated 14.4 percent of SNAP households also received UI at some time in 2009 (a recessionary year), an increase of 6.6 percentage points from 2005 (a full-employment year). Conversely, an estimated 13.4 percent of UI households also received SNAP in 2009, an increase of 2.3 percentage points from 2005. SNAP households with lower annual income relative to poverty or with householders who did not complete high school were relatively less likely to also have UI, indicating that these populations were relatively more likely to rely on SNAP benefits alone (without UI). (author abstract) 

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