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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Calloway, Erik; Gundersen, Craig; Henchy, Geraldine; Abdi, Fadumo
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2018

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This is the PowerPoint presentation from the webinar. Listen to the recording...

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This is the PowerPoint presentation from the webinar. Listen to the recording from the Webinar here. The webinar transcript can be found here. A record of the question and answer session from the webinar can be found here.

  • Individual Author: Trippe, Carole; Tadler, Chrystine; Johnson, Paul; Giannarelli, Linda; Betson, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2015 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category.

    The report also provides estimates by region, U.S. territory, and race and ethnicity. (Author abstract)

     

    This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2015 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category.

    The report also provides estimates by region, U.S. territory, and race and ethnicity. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Besharov, Douglas J.; Call, Douglas M.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2017

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) started as a two-year pilot program in 1972 and was made permanent in 1975. As Peter H. Rossi explained in Feeding the Poor: Assessing Federal Food Aid, “The main rationale for the WIC program is that significant numbers of poor pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children have nutritional deficiencies that endanger the proper development of fetuses, infants, or children, leading to conditions such as prematurity, neonate mortality, low birth weight, slow development, and anemia.”

    In 2014, WIC was an $8 billion program (about $6.2 billion in federal funding and about $1.8 billion through rebates from infant formula manufacturers), which served about 8.2 million people, including 2 million infants, 4.3 million children ages one through four, and 2 million pregnant and postpartum mothers. Although WIC is a program of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), most of its grantees are state health departments. Those state agencies, in turn, fund WIC services through local health-related...

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) started as a two-year pilot program in 1972 and was made permanent in 1975. As Peter H. Rossi explained in Feeding the Poor: Assessing Federal Food Aid, “The main rationale for the WIC program is that significant numbers of poor pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children have nutritional deficiencies that endanger the proper development of fetuses, infants, or children, leading to conditions such as prematurity, neonate mortality, low birth weight, slow development, and anemia.”

    In 2014, WIC was an $8 billion program (about $6.2 billion in federal funding and about $1.8 billion through rebates from infant formula manufacturers), which served about 8.2 million people, including 2 million infants, 4.3 million children ages one through four, and 2 million pregnant and postpartum mothers. Although WIC is a program of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), most of its grantees are state health departments. Those state agencies, in turn, fund WIC services through local health-related agencies, such as health departments, hospitals, public health clinics, and community health centers.

    Given WIC’s purpose, benefits package, and putative eligibility rules, one would assume that its benefits would be targeted to the most needful Americans. But various formal and informal changes have liberalized eligibility criteria so that, according to the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS), in 2014, about 24 percent of WIC recipients lived in families with annual incomes above WIC’s putative income cap of 185 percent of poverty, and about 8 percent in families with annual incomes at or above 300 percent of poverty. In 2014, about 49 percent of all American infants were on WIC, and about 39 percent of postpartum and breastfeeding mothers received WIC benefits.

    We believe that the expenditures for these expansions in enrollment could have been much more effectively used to improve or intensify services for generally needier families. Aggravating the situation, WIC’s rigid spending rules effectively prevent local programs from spending more than about 30 minutes with clients for nutrition education every six months and preclude enriching food packages with such items as iron supplements. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Besharov, Douglas J.; Call, Douglas M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    This paper is part of a multi-part study by the author and his colleagues that explores how income eligibility is determined in selected federal means-tested programs. The first paper in this series (on Head Start), found that the malleability of current definitions of “income” make it easy for staff to expand program eligibility—with little political scrutiny or public debate—by informally adopting more liberal interpretations of existing rules.

    This paper similarly explains WIC’s expanded eligibility and enrollment as the products of liberalized interpretations of eligibility rules by WIC staff and officials at all levels of government. It also identifies the factors behind this liberalization and makes recommendations about what to do about them. (Edited author introduction)

    This paper is part of a multi-part study by the author and his colleagues that explores how income eligibility is determined in selected federal means-tested programs. The first paper in this series (on Head Start), found that the malleability of current definitions of “income” make it easy for staff to expand program eligibility—with little political scrutiny or public debate—by informally adopting more liberal interpretations of existing rules.

    This paper similarly explains WIC’s expanded eligibility and enrollment as the products of liberalized interpretations of eligibility rules by WIC staff and officials at all levels of government. It also identifies the factors behind this liberalization and makes recommendations about what to do about them. (Edited author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Cutts, Diana B.; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M.; Chilton, Mariana M.; Cook, John T.; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H.; Frank, Deborah A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child’s birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not...

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child’s birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes. (Author abstract)

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