Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Montgomery, Debbie; Splett, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized...

    To determine whether breast-feeding of infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is associated with a reduction in Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of life; if so, to determine whether the reduction in Medicaid expenditures represents a positive economic benefit to society when WIC costs for these infants and their mothers are considered. Cohorts of exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were tracked for 6 months to compare WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures. The sample consisted of 406 healthy infants who were breast-fed exclusively for at least 3 months and 470 healthy infants who were formula-fed exclusively. The infants, born between August 1, 1993, and December 31, 1993, were enrolled in WIC and Medicaid. Compared with formula-feeding, breast-feeding each infant enrolled in WIC saved $478 in WIC costs and Medicaid expenditures during the first 6 months of the infant's life, or $161 after consideration of the formula manufacturer's rebate. A Medicaid cost saving of $112 per infant was realized by the breast-feeding cohort, and Medicaid pharmacy reimbursement costs for breast-fed infants were significantly lower, half that of formula-fed infants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Garg, Arvin; Toy, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos; Cook, John; Cordella, Nick
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Objective: To examine whether maternal depression predicts future household food insecurity for low-income families.

    Methods: This was a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The study cohort consisted of 2917 low-income mothers, defined as <185% federal poverty level, who were food secure at baseline. Maternal data collected when children were 9 and 24 months of age were used. Data at 9 months were considered baseline, and data at 24 months were considered follow-up. Baseline maternal depressive symptoms were measured by a 12-item abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Household food insecurity at follow-up was measured by the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Scale.

    Results: At baseline, 16% of mothers were depressed (raw score >9). Most mothers were white, unemployed, and born in the United States. The majority received Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (86%); 39% received Supplemental...

    Objective: To examine whether maternal depression predicts future household food insecurity for low-income families.

    Methods: This was a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The study cohort consisted of 2917 low-income mothers, defined as <185% federal poverty level, who were food secure at baseline. Maternal data collected when children were 9 and 24 months of age were used. Data at 9 months were considered baseline, and data at 24 months were considered follow-up. Baseline maternal depressive symptoms were measured by a 12-item abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Household food insecurity at follow-up was measured by the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Scale.

    Results: At baseline, 16% of mothers were depressed (raw score >9). Most mothers were white, unemployed, and born in the United States. The majority received Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (86%); 39% received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). At follow-up, 11.8% of mothers reported household food insecurity. In multivariable analysis, maternal depression at baseline was significantly associated with food insecurity at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 1.50; 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.12).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that maternal depression is an independent risk factor for household food insecurity in low-income families with young children. Multidisciplinary interventions embedded within and outside the pediatric medical home should be developed to identify depressed mothers and link them to community-based mental health and food resources. Further longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to understand and address the complex relationship between poverty, maternal depression, social safety nets, and food insecurity. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gilbert, Danielle; Nanda, Joy; Paige, David
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Participation in women, infants and children (WIC), supplemental nutritional assistance program (SNAP), temporary assistance for needy families (TANF), and medical assistance program (MAP) programs provide critical nutrition and health benefits to low-income families. Concurrent enrollment in these programs provides a powerful safety net, yet simultaneous participation is reported to be low. Underutilization undermines program objectives, client well-being and food security. This paper examines concurrent participation among the most needy WIC clients, those at/below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), in SNAP, TANF and MAP. We examined the Maryland state WIC program infant electronic database (N = 34,409) for the 12-month period ending September 2010. Our analysis focused on two-thirds of these infants (N = 23,065) who were at/below the 100% FPL. Mothers’ mean age was 26.8 ± 6 years; 20.6% White; 52.7% African American, and 23.4% Hispanic. Approximately 10% of infants weighed <2,500 g and 1.5% weighed <1,500 g at birth. Average household income was $10,160; 55.7% were...

    Participation in women, infants and children (WIC), supplemental nutritional assistance program (SNAP), temporary assistance for needy families (TANF), and medical assistance program (MAP) programs provide critical nutrition and health benefits to low-income families. Concurrent enrollment in these programs provides a powerful safety net, yet simultaneous participation is reported to be low. Underutilization undermines program objectives, client well-being and food security. This paper examines concurrent participation among the most needy WIC clients, those at/below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), in SNAP, TANF and MAP. We examined the Maryland state WIC program infant electronic database (N = 34,409) for the 12-month period ending September 2010. Our analysis focused on two-thirds of these infants (N = 23,065) who were at/below the 100% FPL. Mothers’ mean age was 26.8 ± 6 years; 20.6% White; 52.7% African American, and 23.4% Hispanic. Approximately 10% of infants weighed <2,500 g and 1.5% weighed <1,500 g at birth. Average household income was $10,160; 55.7% were at/below 50% FPL. Two-thirds (68.4%) participated in MAP, 31% in SNAP and 9% in TANF. Only 8% were enrolled in all three programs whereas 28% were not enrolled in any. There was a statistically significant difference in mean age and household income between multi-program beneficiaries and mothers who solely participated in WIC: 25.6 ± 5 years and $7,298 ± $4,496 compared with 27.2 ± 6 years and $12,216 ± $6,920, respectively (p < 0.001). Among WIC families at or below 100% FPL, only 8% received multi-program benefits. Specific factors responsible for participation on an individual level are not available. To optimize enrollment, a coordinated effort is essential to identify and overcome barriers to concurrent participation among these families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Olson, Steve
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2017

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Moffitt, Robert A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    Receipt of benefits from other traditional transfer programs by SNAP families is common, with 76 percent of those families receiving at least one other major benefit of that type, excluding Medicaid, in 2008. However, over half of these only received one other benefit and only a very small fraction received more than two others. Over the long-term, multiple benefit receipt among SNAP families has been falling, a result of declines in the TANF caseload offsetting rises in the SSI, SSDI, and WIC caseloads. Finally, the analysis shows that high marginal tax rates generated by multiple program receipt are relevant for only a small portion of the TANF caseload, namely, the portion of the caseload that is nondisabled, nonelderly, and have earnings in the phaseout regions of the programs where marginal tax rates are high. The vast majority of SNAP families are not affected and, indeed, most have sufficiently low earnings that they face negative cumulative marginal tax rates. (Author abstract)

    Receipt of benefits from other traditional transfer programs by SNAP families is common, with 76 percent of those families receiving at least one other major benefit of that type, excluding Medicaid, in 2008. However, over half of these only received one other benefit and only a very small fraction received more than two others. Over the long-term, multiple benefit receipt among SNAP families has been falling, a result of declines in the TANF caseload offsetting rises in the SSI, SSDI, and WIC caseloads. Finally, the analysis shows that high marginal tax rates generated by multiple program receipt are relevant for only a small portion of the TANF caseload, namely, the portion of the caseload that is nondisabled, nonelderly, and have earnings in the phaseout regions of the programs where marginal tax rates are high. The vast majority of SNAP families are not affected and, indeed, most have sufficiently low earnings that they face negative cumulative marginal tax rates. (Author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1997 to 2018

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations