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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Martinez-Schiferl, Michael
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides low-income pregnant women, postpartum mothers, infants, and children up to age 5 with select foods, nutrition education, and health care and government service referrals. WIC aims to improve the health of participants and prevent later health problems. This brief summarizes key features of the WIC program, including eligibility rules, participation, benefits, and administration. It presents the 2009 estimates of WIC eligibility and coverage for the nation and the states. Also summarized are recent improvements in WIC administrative practices and nutrition outcomes. (author abstract)

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides low-income pregnant women, postpartum mothers, infants, and children up to age 5 with select foods, nutrition education, and health care and government service referrals. WIC aims to improve the health of participants and prevent later health problems. This brief summarizes key features of the WIC program, including eligibility rules, participation, benefits, and administration. It presents the 2009 estimates of WIC eligibility and coverage for the nation and the states. Also summarized are recent improvements in WIC administrative practices and nutrition outcomes. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Castner, Laura; Mabli, James; Sykes, Julie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides nutritious foods that promote the health of low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and preschool children. Infants and children up to age five from low-income families and found to be at nutritional risk are eligible. Low-income women found to be at nutritional risk are also eligible for WIC throughout their pregnancy and for up to one year postpartum (limited to six months for mothers who are not breastfeeding). In some States, women, infants, and children in households that participate in other assistance programs are automatically income eligible. In 2008, an average of 8.7 million women, infants, and children participated in the program each month. Infants and children compose 75 percent of the WIC population.

    WIC enrollment and departure by infants and children are largely affected by changes in eligibility related to age. However, other factors affect eligibility and participation as well, since many children drop out of the program before their eligibility period...

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides nutritious foods that promote the health of low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and preschool children. Infants and children up to age five from low-income families and found to be at nutritional risk are eligible. Low-income women found to be at nutritional risk are also eligible for WIC throughout their pregnancy and for up to one year postpartum (limited to six months for mothers who are not breastfeeding). In some States, women, infants, and children in households that participate in other assistance programs are automatically income eligible. In 2008, an average of 8.7 million women, infants, and children participated in the program each month. Infants and children compose 75 percent of the WIC population.

    WIC enrollment and departure by infants and children are largely affected by changes in eligibility related to age. However, other factors affect eligibility and participation as well, since many children drop out of the program before their eligibility period expires. In this study we focus on four events related to the dynamics of WIC participation by eligible infants and children: entry, exit, continuity of participation, and re-entry. We also examined trigger events that led to entry into the program and exit from it. We conduct the study in two stages. In the first stage, a descriptive analysis, we examine the dynamics of WIC participation for infants and children, from 2001 to 2003, including rates of entry among low-income infants and children; age of the infant or child at first entry; the percentage that continue to participate from one age to another; and age of the infant or child at exit. In the second stage, a multivariate analysis, we explore the factors associated with their entry into and exit from the program.
    Periodic examination of these WIC participation dynamics leads to a better understanding of overall trends in the size of the WIC caseload and the factors that affect participation. In addition, this analysis may help WIC outreach programs in targeting those who tend to enroll late or not at all, and in understanding why some participants leave WIC when they remain eligible for the program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Harper, Ed; Hirschman, Jay; Mabli, James; Nelson, Sandi; Hourihan, Kerianne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that met these criteria and was eligible for WIC benefits in each of the years 1994 through 2007. These revise a set of estimates published by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) in 2006. The new series builds on the methodology recommended by the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council (CNSTAT) and more accurately captures changes in the breastfeeding practice of new mothers during their period of WIC eligibility. In 2007, 14.2 million individuals were eligible for WIC benefits in an average month. The program served 8.4 million, or 59 percent of those eligible. (author abstract)

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that met these criteria and was eligible for WIC benefits in each of the years 1994 through 2007. These revise a set of estimates published by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) in 2006. The new series builds on the methodology recommended by the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council (CNSTAT) and more accurately captures changes in the breastfeeding practice of new mothers during their period of WIC eligibility. In 2007, 14.2 million individuals were eligible for WIC benefits in an average month. The program served 8.4 million, or 59 percent of those eligible. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gilbert, Danielle; Nanda, Joy; Paige, David
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Participation in women, infants and children (WIC), supplemental nutritional assistance program (SNAP), temporary assistance for needy families (TANF), and medical assistance program (MAP) programs provide critical nutrition and health benefits to low-income families. Concurrent enrollment in these programs provides a powerful safety net, yet simultaneous participation is reported to be low. Underutilization undermines program objectives, client well-being and food security. This paper examines concurrent participation among the most needy WIC clients, those at/below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), in SNAP, TANF and MAP. We examined the Maryland state WIC program infant electronic database (N = 34,409) for the 12-month period ending September 2010. Our analysis focused on two-thirds of these infants (N = 23,065) who were at/below the 100% FPL. Mothers’ mean age was 26.8 ± 6 years; 20.6% White; 52.7% African American, and 23.4% Hispanic. Approximately 10% of infants weighed <2,500 g and 1.5% weighed <1,500 g at birth. Average household income was $10,160; 55.7% were...

    Participation in women, infants and children (WIC), supplemental nutritional assistance program (SNAP), temporary assistance for needy families (TANF), and medical assistance program (MAP) programs provide critical nutrition and health benefits to low-income families. Concurrent enrollment in these programs provides a powerful safety net, yet simultaneous participation is reported to be low. Underutilization undermines program objectives, client well-being and food security. This paper examines concurrent participation among the most needy WIC clients, those at/below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), in SNAP, TANF and MAP. We examined the Maryland state WIC program infant electronic database (N = 34,409) for the 12-month period ending September 2010. Our analysis focused on two-thirds of these infants (N = 23,065) who were at/below the 100% FPL. Mothers’ mean age was 26.8 ± 6 years; 20.6% White; 52.7% African American, and 23.4% Hispanic. Approximately 10% of infants weighed <2,500 g and 1.5% weighed <1,500 g at birth. Average household income was $10,160; 55.7% were at/below 50% FPL. Two-thirds (68.4%) participated in MAP, 31% in SNAP and 9% in TANF. Only 8% were enrolled in all three programs whereas 28% were not enrolled in any. There was a statistically significant difference in mean age and household income between multi-program beneficiaries and mothers who solely participated in WIC: 25.6 ± 5 years and $7,298 ± $4,496 compared with 27.2 ± 6 years and $12,216 ± $6,920, respectively (p < 0.001). Among WIC families at or below 100% FPL, only 8% received multi-program benefits. Specific factors responsible for participation on an individual level are not available. To optimize enrollment, a coordinated effort is essential to identify and overcome barriers to concurrent participation among these families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Bryan; Thorn, Betsy; McGill, Brittany; Suchman, Alexandra; Mendelson, Michele; Patlan, Kelly; Freeman, Brian; Gotlieb, Rebecca; Connor, Patty
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This report is a census of women, infants, and children who were participating in the WIC program in April, 2012. The report includes information on participant income and nutrition risk characteristics, and estimates breastfeeding initiation rates for WIC infants. (author abstract)

    This report is a census of women, infants, and children who were participating in the WIC program in April, 2012. The report includes information on participant income and nutrition risk characteristics, and estimates breastfeeding initiation rates for WIC infants. (author abstract)

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