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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Minkler, Meredith; Duerr Berrick, Jill; Needell, Barbara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

  • Individual Author: Mills, Gregory; Kornfeld, Robert; Porcari, Diane; Laliberty, Don
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This report presents the findings of the final phase of a five-year evaluation of welfare reforms implemented by the Arizona Department of Economic Security under two major initiatives that altered the rules and procedures for providing cash assistance to low-income families.

    The first set of reforms was implemented in November 1995 under the title EMPOWER, for “Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging Responsibility.” These policy changes included time-limited assistance, a family benefit cap, restricted eligibility for unwed minor parents, mandatory JOBS participation for teen parents, stricter JOBS sanctions, extended Transitional Medical Assistance and Transitional Child Care, elimination of the 100-hour rule for two-parent families, and individual development accounts.

    The second set of reforms, entitled EMPOWER Redesign and referred to in this report simply as “Redesign,” was implemented in August 1997. These changes included the use of a Personal Responsibility Agreement, imposition of progressive sanctions (including possible loss of the full...

    This report presents the findings of the final phase of a five-year evaluation of welfare reforms implemented by the Arizona Department of Economic Security under two major initiatives that altered the rules and procedures for providing cash assistance to low-income families.

    The first set of reforms was implemented in November 1995 under the title EMPOWER, for “Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging Responsibility.” These policy changes included time-limited assistance, a family benefit cap, restricted eligibility for unwed minor parents, mandatory JOBS participation for teen parents, stricter JOBS sanctions, extended Transitional Medical Assistance and Transitional Child Care, elimination of the 100-hour rule for two-parent families, and individual development accounts.

    The second set of reforms, entitled EMPOWER Redesign and referred to in this report simply as “Redesign,” was implemented in August 1997. These changes included the use of a Personal Responsibility Agreement, imposition of progressive sanctions (including possible loss of the full family benefit) for non-compliance with program requirements (relating to JOBS, child support enforcement, school attendance, and child immunization), removal of adult exemptions from JOBS participation (with a limited number of deferrals), and local office administrative reforms aimed at co-locating program services and establishing a more employment-focused “work first” pattern of client flow. Under the latter reforms, applicants attended a group orientation session and were offered job-finding resources (including a resource center) before being considered for cash assistance and other transitional income support, and before receiving employment-related services (including job-readiness classes).

    Overall, this final phase of the evaluation found that the Arizona welfare recipients who were among the first subject to the EMPOWER reforms have continued to show general improvement in their economic circumstances, as followed for four years since implementation of the reforms. A significant minority, however, have experienced financial hardships. Although most have gone off welfare and now consider themselves better-off, many feel financially insecure. Among recent welfare applicants, most view favorably the changes in local offices, as adopted under Redesign, to co-locate programs and establish a “work first” emphasis in providing services to clients. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pandey, Shanta; Porterfield, Shirley; Choi-Ko, Hyeji; Yoon, Hong-Sik
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between 1998 and 2000. The results provide useful insights into the impacts of welfare reform on families in rural America. Welfare recipients in rural areas have higher levels of education and job experience than the general welfare population in the nation, but they live in areas with fewer job opportunities and very poor public transportation. Those who are employed are making an average of $5.50 per hour and continue to live in poverty. With the economy slowing down across the nation, rural welfare recipients are beginning to increase again, after several years of decline. For rural women to exit welfare, improvement in a variety of work support programs including wages, EITC...

    This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between 1998 and 2000. The results provide useful insights into the impacts of welfare reform on families in rural America. Welfare recipients in rural areas have higher levels of education and job experience than the general welfare population in the nation, but they live in areas with fewer job opportunities and very poor public transportation. Those who are employed are making an average of $5.50 per hour and continue to live in poverty. With the economy slowing down across the nation, rural welfare recipients are beginning to increase again, after several years of decline. For rural women to exit welfare, improvement in a variety of work support programs including wages, EITC, Food Stamps, childcare, and transportation will have to be made. In addition, opportunities for postsecondary education must be available for low-income women who want to pursue their education beyond high school. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tout, Kathryn; Brooks, Jennifer; Zaslow, Martha; Redd, Zakia; Moore, Kristin; McGarvey, Ayelish; McGroder, Sharon; Gennetian, Lisa; Morris, Pamela; Ross, Christine; Beecroft, Erik
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    This report focuses on the question of whether and how pilot welfare reform programs launched in five states–Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota–affected children’s developmental outcomes. We synthesize results from experimental studies (in which follow-up interviews ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 years after random assignment) in the five states, looking first at adult economic outcomes that the programs aimed to change (targeted outcomes), then turning to aspects of young children’s lives–including child care and the home environment–that may also have been changed by the programs, and focusing finally on how children themselves were affected by the programs. (author abstract)

    This report focuses on the question of whether and how pilot welfare reform programs launched in five states–Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota–affected children’s developmental outcomes. We synthesize results from experimental studies (in which follow-up interviews ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 years after random assignment) in the five states, looking first at adult economic outcomes that the programs aimed to change (targeted outcomes), then turning to aspects of young children’s lives–including child care and the home environment–that may also have been changed by the programs, and focusing finally on how children themselves were affected by the programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Davis, Dana-Ain; Aparicio, Ana; Jacobs, Audrey; Kochiyama, Akemi; Queeley, Andrea; Thompson, Beverley Yuen; Mullings, Leith
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    In 1996, President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, popularly known as welfare reform. Title I of this legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) entitlement program with Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF). TANF is a block grant from the federal government that provides states with an annual Family Assistance grant. There is a five-year lifetime limit on the receipt of TANF funds and after two years all able-bodied recipients must work full time for their benefits.

    Conservative and neo-liberal politicians have lauded the success of welfare reform for decreasing the welfare rolls in the media. However, recent scholarship has pointed to the disproportionate impact of welfare reform policy on communities of color. Economic vulnerabilities due to race and ethnicity have long been one aspect of poverty. The racial imbalance of who constitutes the poor has been accentuated by welfare reform policy, as immigrants, Latina, African American and Asian women absorb the punitive aspects of...

    In 1996, President Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, popularly known as welfare reform. Title I of this legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) entitlement program with Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF). TANF is a block grant from the federal government that provides states with an annual Family Assistance grant. There is a five-year lifetime limit on the receipt of TANF funds and after two years all able-bodied recipients must work full time for their benefits.

    Conservative and neo-liberal politicians have lauded the success of welfare reform for decreasing the welfare rolls in the media. However, recent scholarship has pointed to the disproportionate impact of welfare reform policy on communities of color. Economic vulnerabilities due to race and ethnicity have long been one aspect of poverty. The racial imbalance of who constitutes the poor has been accentuated by welfare reform policy, as immigrants, Latina, African American and Asian women absorb the punitive aspects of welfare reform.

    To address these issues, the New York State Scholar Practitioner Team sponsored by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation’s Devolution Initiative developed the Community Outreach and Research Project. This project was organized in concert with three other New York State Devolution Initiative grantees: The Children’s Defense Fund-NY, Inc; Citizens Action of New York; and Citizens’ Committee for Children. The project also benefited from the support of the New York Immigration Coalition. (Author abstract)

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