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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Danielson, Caroline; Klerman, Jacob Alex
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, created in 1996 to replace Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), devolved considerable policymaking responsibility to states. In the 2006 reauthorization of TANF, Bush administration officials and others proclaimed welfare reform a dramatic success, yet research has not comprehensively assessed the extent to which specific welfare policies caused the caseload to decline. Employing 7 years of AFDC data and 9 years of TANF data, in combination with methods sensitive to the effect of gradually implemented policies on caseload stocks, this work obtains plausible estimates of the effects of the economy and of four policies (financial incentives, sanctions, time limits, and diversion) that characterize the shift from AFDC to TANF. Simulations imply that the examined policies pushed the caseload down in the 1990s but that neither they nor the economy can explain the majority of the decline. (Author abstract)

    The federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, created in 1996 to replace Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), devolved considerable policymaking responsibility to states. In the 2006 reauthorization of TANF, Bush administration officials and others proclaimed welfare reform a dramatic success, yet research has not comprehensively assessed the extent to which specific welfare policies caused the caseload to decline. Employing 7 years of AFDC data and 9 years of TANF data, in combination with methods sensitive to the effect of gradually implemented policies on caseload stocks, this work obtains plausible estimates of the effects of the economy and of four policies (financial incentives, sanctions, time limits, and diversion) that characterize the shift from AFDC to TANF. Simulations imply that the examined policies pushed the caseload down in the 1990s but that neither they nor the economy can explain the majority of the decline. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    In this study the authors explore racial disparities in the uses of sanctions and the different impact of sanctions on the economic well-being of African American and White TANF leavers. The study analyzed 907 African American and 1,336 White welfare leavers from the 1999 and 2002 data of the NSAF. Chi-square results show that sanctions are more significantly imposed to African Americans than Whites. On the other hand, regression results show that the impact of sanctions on the employment and family income of African Americans and Whites are comparable. Implications suggest that states need to have an appropriate sanction process, training programs for caseworkers, or other policy changes to reduce the racial disparities. (Author abstract)

    In this study the authors explore racial disparities in the uses of sanctions and the different impact of sanctions on the economic well-being of African American and White TANF leavers. The study analyzed 907 African American and 1,336 White welfare leavers from the 1999 and 2002 data of the NSAF. Chi-square results show that sanctions are more significantly imposed to African Americans than Whites. On the other hand, regression results show that the impact of sanctions on the employment and family income of African Americans and Whites are comparable. Implications suggest that states need to have an appropriate sanction process, training programs for caseworkers, or other policy changes to reduce the racial disparities. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tout, Kathryn; Brooks, Jennifer; Zaslow, Martha; Redd, Zakia; Moore, Kristin; McGarvey, Ayelish; McGroder, Sharon; Gennetian, Lisa; Morris, Pamela; Ross, Christine; Beecroft, Erik
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    This report focuses on the question of whether and how pilot welfare reform programs launched in five states–Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota–affected children’s developmental outcomes. We synthesize results from experimental studies (in which follow-up interviews ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 years after random assignment) in the five states, looking first at adult economic outcomes that the programs aimed to change (targeted outcomes), then turning to aspects of young children’s lives–including child care and the home environment–that may also have been changed by the programs, and focusing finally on how children themselves were affected by the programs. (author abstract)

    This report focuses on the question of whether and how pilot welfare reform programs launched in five states–Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota–affected children’s developmental outcomes. We synthesize results from experimental studies (in which follow-up interviews ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 years after random assignment) in the five states, looking first at adult economic outcomes that the programs aimed to change (targeted outcomes), then turning to aspects of young children’s lives–including child care and the home environment–that may also have been changed by the programs, and focusing finally on how children themselves were affected by the programs. (author abstract)

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