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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Born, Catherine E.; Caudill, Pamela J.; Cordero, Melinda L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    One of the most radically different features of Maryland s reformed welfare system is its use of the full family sanction whereby, for non-compliance with certain program requirements, the entire family s cash assistance grant is terminated. The full family sanction option became available to states under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). Previously, federal law did not generally permit states to terminate benefits to an entire household on the basis of an adult's non-compliant behavior. Under pre-PRWORA, waiver-based welfare reform, several states experimented with full family sanctions and a few reports on their experiences have been issued. For the most part though states which elected the full family sanctioning option under PRWORA had to do so with limited historical experience to guide them and virtually no empirical data to help them predict what the magnitude and effects of full family sanctioning might be. Given the newness and severity of this penalty, however, it seems imperative that states which adopted this policy...

    One of the most radically different features of Maryland s reformed welfare system is its use of the full family sanction whereby, for non-compliance with certain program requirements, the entire family s cash assistance grant is terminated. The full family sanction option became available to states under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). Previously, federal law did not generally permit states to terminate benefits to an entire household on the basis of an adult's non-compliant behavior. Under pre-PRWORA, waiver-based welfare reform, several states experimented with full family sanctions and a few reports on their experiences have been issued. For the most part though states which elected the full family sanctioning option under PRWORA had to do so with limited historical experience to guide them and virtually no empirical data to help them predict what the magnitude and effects of full family sanctioning might be. Given the newness and severity of this penalty, however, it seems imperative that states which adopted this policy option examine how that policy has been working.

    Thanks to a long-standing research partnership between the Maryland Department of Human Resources and the University of Maryland School of Social Work, we are able to empirically examine this and other welfare reform issues. Since the outset of reform in Maryland (October, 1996) the School has been carrying out a large, longitudinal study, Life After Welfare, which tracks the experiences of several thousand families who have left the cash assistance rolls. The present report uses data from the Life After Welfare study and universe data from the state's welfare information management systems to examine the use and effects of full family sanctions for noncompliance with work and non-cooperation with child support during the first 18 months of reform (October, 1996 - March, 1998). (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Williamson, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    This brief describes the population of sanctioned families and what happens to them in the short- and long-term aftermath of their involuntary welfare case closure.

    First, we investigated whether the trend of increasing work sanctions over time can be explained by an increase in certain characteristics of caseheads and their cases, or if the story behind the increase is more nuanced. Using the Client Automated Resources and Eligibility System (CARES) and the Child Support Enforcement System (CSES), we collected data for TANF clients whose cases closed between 2005 and 2009 due to a child support sanction, a work sanction, or voluntarily. Considering only the first case closure for each individual during this period, the final sample size for the Linear Probability and probit regression models was 11,138 Baltimore City cases.

    Second, we investigated what outcomes sanctioned families in Maryland face in terms of employment and welfare receipt. Using CARES and CSES again, we collected data for TANF clients whose cases closed between April 1998 and March 2008 (n...

    This brief describes the population of sanctioned families and what happens to them in the short- and long-term aftermath of their involuntary welfare case closure.

    First, we investigated whether the trend of increasing work sanctions over time can be explained by an increase in certain characteristics of caseheads and their cases, or if the story behind the increase is more nuanced. Using the Client Automated Resources and Eligibility System (CARES) and the Child Support Enforcement System (CSES), we collected data for TANF clients whose cases closed between 2005 and 2009 due to a child support sanction, a work sanction, or voluntarily. Considering only the first case closure for each individual during this period, the final sample size for the Linear Probability and probit regression models was 11,138 Baltimore City cases.

    Second, we investigated what outcomes sanctioned families in Maryland face in terms of employment and welfare receipt. Using CARES and CSES again, we collected data for TANF clients whose cases closed between April 1998 and March 2008 (n=15,259) due to a child support sanction (n=395), a work sanction (n=2,770), and voluntarily (n=12,094). We employed Chi- square and ANOVA methods where appropriate to test for differences among the three groups. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Born, Catherine; Kolupanowich, Nicholas; Ovwigho, Pamela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work...

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work Supports

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thiebaud Nicoli, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)