Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Tracy, Kirk; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Ovwigho, Pamela C.; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    Cash diversion strategies, a 1996 U.S. welfare reform innovation, are intended to alleviate short-term crises and prevent the need for ongoing cash assistance among certain welfare applicants. Using administrative data, this work compares the welfare outcomes of Maryland Welfare Avoidance Grant recipients from October 1998 to September 2000 (n p 1,992) with those of a sample of welfare leavers (n p 1,219). It relies on event-history analyses and covers a 3-year follow-up period. Findings show that diversion grants lower, to a statistically significant degree, the relative odds of future cash assistance among first time welfare agency clients but have no demonstrated effect among those with a history of welfare receipt. (author abstract)

    Cash diversion strategies, a 1996 U.S. welfare reform innovation, are intended to alleviate short-term crises and prevent the need for ongoing cash assistance among certain welfare applicants. Using administrative data, this work compares the welfare outcomes of Maryland Welfare Avoidance Grant recipients from October 1998 to September 2000 (n p 1,992) with those of a sample of welfare leavers (n p 1,219). It relies on event-history analyses and covers a 3-year follow-up period. Findings show that diversion grants lower, to a statistically significant degree, the relative odds of future cash assistance among first time welfare agency clients but have no demonstrated effect among those with a history of welfare receipt. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lacey, Darren; Hetling-Wernyj, Andrea; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Despite the seemingly commonsensical basis for using diversion in certain situations, there have been few studies examining the characteristics of diverted families and the outcomes achieved through diversion. The study described in this report begins to fill that information gap for Maryland. It provides state officials with the same type of information about families who have experienced “life without welfare” as other of our studies have provided about families living “life after welfare” and “life on welfare”.1 The key study questions are:

    1. To what extent are two types of formal diversion, lump sum payments and rapid employment services, used and what are the characteristics of diverted families? 

    2. In terms of outcomes related to employment and wages, what happens to diverted families over time? 

    3. Does formal diversion prevent cash assistance receipt or just defer that receipt for some period of time? 

    4. What are the patterns of Food Stamp and Medical Assistance participation among diverted families? 

    To address these questions, the...

    Despite the seemingly commonsensical basis for using diversion in certain situations, there have been few studies examining the characteristics of diverted families and the outcomes achieved through diversion. The study described in this report begins to fill that information gap for Maryland. It provides state officials with the same type of information about families who have experienced “life without welfare” as other of our studies have provided about families living “life after welfare” and “life on welfare”.1 The key study questions are:

    1. To what extent are two types of formal diversion, lump sum payments and rapid employment services, used and what are the characteristics of diverted families? 

    2. In terms of outcomes related to employment and wages, what happens to diverted families over time? 

    3. Does formal diversion prevent cash assistance receipt or just defer that receipt for some period of time? 

    4. What are the patterns of Food Stamp and Medical Assistance participation among diverted families? 

    To address these questions, the study uses administrative data sources to examine the prevalence of diversion and the baseline characteristics of Maryland
    families (n=4,219) formally diverted from cash assistance during a two year period (April 1998 - March 2000), through lump sum awards, Welfare Avoidance Grants, (n=2,023) and “rapid employment” services (n=2,196). Separate attention is given to the two groups and twelve month post-diversion outcomes for each group are also presented. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schexnayder, Deanna; Schroeder, Daniel; Lein, Laura; Dominguez, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    In the post-welfare-reform era, many states have begun conducting research to determine how the new policies affect the families they serve. In particular, states need to understand if former welfare recipients are employed or receiving other types of economic supports, how many have returned to welfare, and reasons for families’ success or failure. This report addresses the following questions: - What are the characteristics of families who left or were diverted from TANF? - To what extent are these families participating in other government programs, especially Medicaid and food stamps? - To what extent are these families employed and/or receiving other economic supports, such as child support and child care subsidies? - Over time, how do these families manage and what hardships do they face? - How do potential applicants view the diversion/application process? - Are there particular points after leaving TANF at which people are the most vulnerable to returning? - Which factors are associated with leaving TANF, being employed, or returning to TANF? This report examines these...

    In the post-welfare-reform era, many states have begun conducting research to determine how the new policies affect the families they serve. In particular, states need to understand if former welfare recipients are employed or receiving other types of economic supports, how many have returned to welfare, and reasons for families’ success or failure. This report addresses the following questions: - What are the characteristics of families who left or were diverted from TANF? - To what extent are these families participating in other government programs, especially Medicaid and food stamps? - To what extent are these families employed and/or receiving other economic supports, such as child support and child care subsidies? - Over time, how do these families manage and what hardships do they face? - How do potential applicants view the diversion/application process? - Are there particular points after leaving TANF at which people are the most vulnerable to returning? - Which factors are associated with leaving TANF, being employed, or returning to TANF? This report examines these research questions for two populations of low-income families: those diverted from TANF prior to enrollment and those who have left TANF. Among ‘diverted’ families, three types are being studied: families redirected prior to TANF application, those denied TANF for non-financial reasons, and approved TANF applicants opting to receive a one-time payment in lieu of TANF benefits.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen A.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.; Shin, Peter; Darnell, Julie; Scarpulla-Nolan, Lea
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    In an effort to better understand state efforts to divert families from welfare and the potential interactions with Medicaid eligibility, this research, funded by the Administration for Children and Families, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, has three broad goals: 1) to describe the range of state diversion programs and how these programs are being implemented, 2) to determine whether and how states are ensuring that families diverted from cash assistance will nonetheless apply for Medicaid and 3) to determine how diversion-related changes might affect families, particularly with respect to their eligibility for Medicaid, and the community-based entities that serve them.

    This report presents the findings from the first phase of this research that involved the collection and analysis of descriptive data about diversion programs and activities in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data collection was accomplished primarily through a review of state documents and structured conversations...

    In an effort to better understand state efforts to divert families from welfare and the potential interactions with Medicaid eligibility, this research, funded by the Administration for Children and Families, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, has three broad goals: 1) to describe the range of state diversion programs and how these programs are being implemented, 2) to determine whether and how states are ensuring that families diverted from cash assistance will nonetheless apply for Medicaid and 3) to determine how diversion-related changes might affect families, particularly with respect to their eligibility for Medicaid, and the community-based entities that serve them.

    This report presents the findings from the first phase of this research that involved the collection and analysis of descriptive data about diversion programs and activities in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data collection was accomplished primarily through a review of state documents and structured conversations with state officials.

    The study findings reveal that the three recognized formal diversion programs are widespread and implemented in a variety of ways. States know little about the effects of their diversion programs, however, both because most programs are so new, and because data collection efforts are lacking or in early stage of development. Important questions remain about the effectiveness of these diversion programs as well as the implications of their operation for Medicaid eligibility.

    Phase two of this study will involve 1) Case studies in five states to collect information on how the diversion programs work in practice and their effects on families from the point of view of administrators, field staff, participating families, and safety net providers, as well as assess the information available on informal diversion, and 2) Follow-up telephone conversations with Medicaid policymakers and program administrators in the 31 states with lump sum payment and/or mandatory applicant job search programs to obtain more information on how states have addressed issues of Medicaid eligibility in designing and implementing these diversion programs.

    This research, building on the findings of phase one, will address four major areas of inquiry: 1) describe and examine the actual implementation of diversion programs and identify potential consequences of diversion for low-income families, particularly with respect to entry into the job market and access to Medicaid; 2) describe state policies regarding Medicaid eligibility for applicants diverted through lump sum payments and mandatory applicant job search, 3) examine whether and how the potential changes in Medicaid enrollment rates associated with diversion efforts might affect traditional health care safety net providers, and 4) examine potential strategies for monitoring changes in Medicaid enrollment rates as well as the effects of these changes over time.

    Formal efforts to divert potential TANF recipients from receiving ongoing assistance represent one of many approaches states have implemented to shift to a more work-oriented, transitional system. These programs are clearly in their infancy but have the potential to affect large numbers of families. This research is creating a knowledge base that can provide a foundation for additional evaluation and monitoring of these program and activities. (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1998 to 2009

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations