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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Russinova, Zlatka; Rogers, E. Sally; Ellison, Marsha Langer; Bloch, Philippe; Lyass, Asya; Wewiorski, Nancy
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    This study explored the predictors of financial self-sufficiency among Social Security beneficiaries with psychiatric disabilities. The study was conducted with individuals who were either past or current disability beneficiaries and who had sustained competitive employment as evidenced by their involvement in a longitudinal investigation on sustained employment among persons with serious mental illnesses. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study employing a survey methodology to determine what factors were associated with participants' capacity to leave the Social Security disability rolls due to gainful employment. We used a stepwise approach to data analysis to explore the association of demographic, clinical, vocational and motivational factors with financial self-sufficiency. Results suggested that individuals with higher occupational status, higher levels of proactive coping and without medical comorbidities were more likely to terminate Social Security disability benefits and achieve financial self-sufficiency due to gainful employment. Study findings can inform...

    This study explored the predictors of financial self-sufficiency among Social Security beneficiaries with psychiatric disabilities. The study was conducted with individuals who were either past or current disability beneficiaries and who had sustained competitive employment as evidenced by their involvement in a longitudinal investigation on sustained employment among persons with serious mental illnesses. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study employing a survey methodology to determine what factors were associated with participants' capacity to leave the Social Security disability rolls due to gainful employment. We used a stepwise approach to data analysis to explore the association of demographic, clinical, vocational and motivational factors with financial self-sufficiency. Results suggested that individuals with higher occupational status, higher levels of proactive coping and without medical comorbidities were more likely to terminate Social Security disability benefits and achieve financial self-sufficiency due to gainful employment. Study findings can inform the development of innovative interventions targeting these malleable predictors associated with financial self-sufficiency among persons with psychiatric disabilities. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Livermore, Gina; Hoffman, Denise; Bardos, Maura
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In July 2008, we implemented regulation changes to the Ticket to Work (TTW) program to increase the financial incentives for service providers to participate in the program. This report compares the characteristics and outcomes of two groups of TTW participants – those who assigned their Tickets before we implemented the revised regulations, and those who assigned their Tickets after. In this report, we assess whether the group that assigned their Tickets before the regulation changes is the same or different from the group that assigned their Tickets after in terms of the characteristics of beneficiaries, the types and intensity of services received, the employment expectations and outcomes of TTW participants, and participant satisfaction with TTW. We also provide updated information about the characteristics and employment-related outcomes of TTW participants based on data in the 2010 National Beneficiary Survey (NBS), analogous to the detailed statistics on TTW participants based on earlier rounds of the NBS and presented in previous TTW evaluation reports.

    This is the...

    In July 2008, we implemented regulation changes to the Ticket to Work (TTW) program to increase the financial incentives for service providers to participate in the program. This report compares the characteristics and outcomes of two groups of TTW participants – those who assigned their Tickets before we implemented the revised regulations, and those who assigned their Tickets after. In this report, we assess whether the group that assigned their Tickets before the regulation changes is the same or different from the group that assigned their Tickets after in terms of the characteristics of beneficiaries, the types and intensity of services received, the employment expectations and outcomes of TTW participants, and participant satisfaction with TTW. We also provide updated information about the characteristics and employment-related outcomes of TTW participants based on data in the 2010 National Beneficiary Survey (NBS), analogous to the detailed statistics on TTW participants based on earlier rounds of the NBS and presented in previous TTW evaluation reports.

    This is the fifth in a series of reports that make up the seventh Ticket to Work evaluation report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Livermore, Gina; Stapleton, David; Roche, Allison
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    This report presents a profile of all working-age (age 18 to 64) SSI and DI beneficiaries. It is the second in a series of reports that make up the fifth Ticket to Work evaluation report. The report focuses on selected personal characteristics, activities, and outcomes closely associated with employment. The profile is based on data from a recent nationally representative survey of working-age SSI and DI beneficiaries Because of important differences between SSI and DI program eligibility criteria, target populations, and treatment of earnings, we also present separate profiles for SSI-only, DI-only, and concurrent (those receiving both SSI and DI) beneficiaries.

    The period of analysis is prior to SSA’s implementation of new Ticket to Work program regulations in July of 2008, and so reflects experiences under the original Ticket to Work rules. The findings indicate that many SSI and DI beneficiaries were working and engaging in work-preparation activities, and many more saw themselves working in the future. In 2006, about half of all beneficiaries reported having work-...

    This report presents a profile of all working-age (age 18 to 64) SSI and DI beneficiaries. It is the second in a series of reports that make up the fifth Ticket to Work evaluation report. The report focuses on selected personal characteristics, activities, and outcomes closely associated with employment. The profile is based on data from a recent nationally representative survey of working-age SSI and DI beneficiaries Because of important differences between SSI and DI program eligibility criteria, target populations, and treatment of earnings, we also present separate profiles for SSI-only, DI-only, and concurrent (those receiving both SSI and DI) beneficiaries.

    The period of analysis is prior to SSA’s implementation of new Ticket to Work program regulations in July of 2008, and so reflects experiences under the original Ticket to Work rules. The findings indicate that many SSI and DI beneficiaries were working and engaging in work-preparation activities, and many more saw themselves working in the future. In 2006, about half of all beneficiaries reported having work-related goals or expectations, had recently received employment-related services or training, and/or had recently been employed. But the jobs secured by beneficiaries did not pay well in general; nor did they offer much in the way of benefits.

    Although many beneficiaries were working, and many more wanted to work, the findings also indicate that there was a high prevalence of certain characteristics, circumstances, and experiences among beneficiaries that stood between them and employment. Other barriers included the fact that few beneficiaries were aware of the work incentive provisions available in the SSI and DI programs, and most were living in households at or near the federal poverty level. As a result, they and their families relied on means-tested public programs for which eligibility could be jeopardized by earnings. Despite these barriers to employment, the large share of beneficiaries who indicated an interest in employment—either through their actions or expectations—suggests that policies designed to promote and support work might be successful if they can address the wide array of obstacles facing beneficiaries in their attempts to work and contribute to their own independence. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lubin, Andrea; Deka, Devajyoti
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Transportation barriers are often cited as the primary reason for the discrepancy in employment rate between persons with disabilities and others. Yet little information is available about the transportation barriers and needs of persons with disabilities who are searching for employment. The primary objective of this descriptive paper is to share valuable information from a unique survey of persons with disabilities who are actively searching for employment in New Jersey. The paper examines the role of public transportation in providing job access to persons with disabilities. It provides information and insights on the availability, usage, needs, barriers, and perceptions of the survey respondents about different public transit modes, and discusses the implications for agencies that provide public and human services transportation. The research shows that despite frequent utilization of public transportation by job-seeking persons with disabilities, many are dissatisfied with public transportation. While satisfaction seems to be high regarding ADA-compliant vehicle equipment,...

    Transportation barriers are often cited as the primary reason for the discrepancy in employment rate between persons with disabilities and others. Yet little information is available about the transportation barriers and needs of persons with disabilities who are searching for employment. The primary objective of this descriptive paper is to share valuable information from a unique survey of persons with disabilities who are actively searching for employment in New Jersey. The paper examines the role of public transportation in providing job access to persons with disabilities. It provides information and insights on the availability, usage, needs, barriers, and perceptions of the survey respondents about different public transit modes, and discusses the implications for agencies that provide public and human services transportation. The research shows that despite frequent utilization of public transportation by job-seeking persons with disabilities, many are dissatisfied with public transportation. While satisfaction seems to be high regarding ADA-compliant vehicle equipment, many are dissatisfied with the level of transit service and environmental barriers between homes and transit stations/stops. It can be inferred from the results that a multitude of strategies will be needed to address the travel needs and barriers of job-seeking persons with disabilities in the state. In addition to assisting human services transportation planning and providing insights to vocational rehabilitation counselors, the observations in the study will be used to lay down the framework for more rigorous research on transportation needs and barriers of persons with disabilities. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Coe, Norma B.; Rutledge, Matthew S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    In 1990, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Sullivan v. Zebley case fundamentally changed, albeit temporarily, the criteria under which children qualified for the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program based on disability.  Instead of a system based on medical criteria alone, 1996 enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) tied children’s eligibility for SSI, in part, to the effects of their medically determinable impairments on their ability to function day-to-day in age-appropriate activities at home, at school, and in their communities.  This paper examines what happened to the Zebley cohort after the age of 18 relative to cohorts who received SSI payments under stricter criteria.  This paper evaluates the long-term impact on educational attainment, earnings, SSI and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) participation, and other markers of adult development for the Zebley cohort.  We find that, overall, SSI receipt in childhood is associated more positive outcomes than negative ones.  The Zebley cohort has a longer...

    In 1990, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Sullivan v. Zebley case fundamentally changed, albeit temporarily, the criteria under which children qualified for the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program based on disability.  Instead of a system based on medical criteria alone, 1996 enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) tied children’s eligibility for SSI, in part, to the effects of their medically determinable impairments on their ability to function day-to-day in age-appropriate activities at home, at school, and in their communities.  This paper examines what happened to the Zebley cohort after the age of 18 relative to cohorts who received SSI payments under stricter criteria.  This paper evaluates the long-term impact on educational attainment, earnings, SSI and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) participation, and other markers of adult development for the Zebley cohort.  We find that, overall, SSI receipt in childhood is associated more positive outcomes than negative ones.  The Zebley cohort has a longer attachment to the labor force and a lower likelihood of welfare receipt in adulthood, but also a higher likelihood of lacking health insurance coverage.  In addition, those with health conditions most likely to be affected by the new evaluation criteria appear to substitute welfare benefits for disability benefits  These results are consistent with the hypothesis that SSI receipt at the margin improves adult outcomes. (author abstract)

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