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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Ty
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people’s eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants’ health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24–36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17–18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life. (author abstract)

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people’s eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants’ health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24–36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17–18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Butler, Sandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    In 2011 the Maine legislature established a 60-month lifetime limit on the length of time that poor families with children could receive help from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. The time limit was implemented as of June 2012. During the next four and one-half months more than 1,500 families, including an estimated 2,700 children, lost this assistance.

    Sandra Butler, a professor of Social Work at the University of Maine with over twenty years of experience in research related to low-income Maine families, conducted a study of the impact of this time limit on the first wave of families to lose their TANF assistance. This work, which included both a survey and personal interviews with a sample of affected families, was commissioned by Maine Equal Justice Partners.

    The study found that families losing assistance face multiple barriers to work and experience severe hardships as a result of losing TANF assistance due to time limits. Further, the findings indicate a failure by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to properly...

    In 2011 the Maine legislature established a 60-month lifetime limit on the length of time that poor families with children could receive help from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. The time limit was implemented as of June 2012. During the next four and one-half months more than 1,500 families, including an estimated 2,700 children, lost this assistance.

    Sandra Butler, a professor of Social Work at the University of Maine with over twenty years of experience in research related to low-income Maine families, conducted a study of the impact of this time limit on the first wave of families to lose their TANF assistance. This work, which included both a survey and personal interviews with a sample of affected families, was commissioned by Maine Equal Justice Partners.

    The study found that families losing assistance face multiple barriers to work and experience severe hardships as a result of losing TANF assistance due to time limits. Further, the findings indicate a failure by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to properly implement key statutory protections in a fair and uniform manner. This survey also raises important questions about the adequacy of services provided to families, particularly those with disabilities, through the ASPIRE program while they are receiving TANF. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: WorkFirst Subcabinet
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2011

    Washington State began WorkFirst, the state’s Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, in August 1997. Now in its 13th year of operation, the program provides cash grants, medical assistance, welfare -to-work services, and work supports (including subsidized child care through the Working Connections Child Care program) to eligible low-income families. The goal of WorkFirst is to help low-income families build a pathway that can lead them out of poverty and toward economic security.

    With the signing of Engrossed Second Substitute House Bill 3141 on April 1, 2010, Governor Christine Gregoire directed the WorkFirst Subcabinet to “examine how to best meet the challenges for WorkFirst families to obtain employment and achieve family self-sufficiency,” and provide a report and plan to implement evidence-based best practices that are sustainable within a block grant program. The Governor challenged the WorkFirst Subcabinet to think anew and to ‘reboot’ WorkFirst for the 21st century. (author abstract)

    Washington State began WorkFirst, the state’s Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, in August 1997. Now in its 13th year of operation, the program provides cash grants, medical assistance, welfare -to-work services, and work supports (including subsidized child care through the Working Connections Child Care program) to eligible low-income families. The goal of WorkFirst is to help low-income families build a pathway that can lead them out of poverty and toward economic security.

    With the signing of Engrossed Second Substitute House Bill 3141 on April 1, 2010, Governor Christine Gregoire directed the WorkFirst Subcabinet to “examine how to best meet the challenges for WorkFirst families to obtain employment and achieve family self-sufficiency,” and provide a report and plan to implement evidence-based best practices that are sustainable within a block grant program. The Governor challenged the WorkFirst Subcabinet to think anew and to ‘reboot’ WorkFirst for the 21st century. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ovwigho, Pamela Caudill; Leavitt, Katharine L.; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Recent research has documented that those leaving TANF in the later years of reform face more challenges to leaving welfare for work and may not be faring as well as earlier exiters. The present study utilizes data from a large-scale, longitudinal study of TANF leavers to examine risk factors for child maltreatment, particularly focusing on the question of higher risk for later leavers. The sample, from Maryland’s Life After Welfare study, includes 17,441 children from 8,900 families who exited TANF between October 1996 and March 2001. Of these children, 7.3% (n = 1,269) experienced a child protective services investigation during the first year after exit, in which abuse or neglect was substantiated or indicated. Discrete time event history analysis revealed several significant predictors of child abuse and neglect, with child welfare history emerging as the strongest predictor. Moreover, we find that risk of a substantiated CPS report is higher for later leaving families, even after controlling for family characteristics and post-exit experiences. These results suggest that...

    Recent research has documented that those leaving TANF in the later years of reform face more challenges to leaving welfare for work and may not be faring as well as earlier exiters. The present study utilizes data from a large-scale, longitudinal study of TANF leavers to examine risk factors for child maltreatment, particularly focusing on the question of higher risk for later leavers. The sample, from Maryland’s Life After Welfare study, includes 17,441 children from 8,900 families who exited TANF between October 1996 and March 2001. Of these children, 7.3% (n = 1,269) experienced a child protective services investigation during the first year after exit, in which abuse or neglect was substantiated or indicated. Discrete time event history analysis revealed several significant predictors of child abuse and neglect, with child welfare history emerging as the strongest predictor. Moreover, we find that risk of a substantiated CPS report is higher for later leaving families, even after controlling for family characteristics and post-exit experiences. These results suggest that policy makers and program managers may need to consider providing extra support to families with a child welfare history who are exiting the rolls in the later years of reform. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a report published by the University of Maryland School of Social Work.

  • Individual Author: Nicoli, Lisa Thiebaud; Logan, Letitia; Born, Catherine
    Reference Type:
    Year: 2012

    This 2012 annual update to Maryland’s landmark, legislatively mandated Life after Welfare research series comes more than three years after the official end of the Great Recession. Tens of millions of Americans, however, are still feeling the recession’s repercussions daily, largely because unemployment remains high. Even highly-educated adults are having a hard time finding work, and the labor market facing younger adults, persons of color, and those with a high school education or less is even more difficult. Perhaps the most telling indicator of our shared distress is that, today, an unprecedented one in every seven Americans receives help to put food on the table through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. (author abstract)

    This 2012 annual update to Maryland’s landmark, legislatively mandated Life after Welfare research series comes more than three years after the official end of the Great Recession. Tens of millions of Americans, however, are still feeling the recession’s repercussions daily, largely because unemployment remains high. Even highly-educated adults are having a hard time finding work, and the labor market facing younger adults, persons of color, and those with a high school education or less is even more difficult. Perhaps the most telling indicator of our shared distress is that, today, an unprecedented one in every seven Americans receives help to put food on the table through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. (author abstract)

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