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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Wallace, Sally; Cox, Robynn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This study seeks to determine the role that parental incarceration plays on the probability of food insecurity among families with children and very low food security of children using micro-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being Study (FFCWS). The data set contains the 18-question food security module which allows us to explore the link between incarceration and food insecurity and very low  food security among children, families, and adults. The incidence of very low food security in our data is somewhat higher than the national average, but the incidence of other levels of food security is similar to national aggregates.

    Since there is likely reverse causality in the relationship between parental incarceration and food insecurity, we employ a variety of program evaluation techniques to identify the causal relationship between food insecurity and parental incarceration. We employ imputation techniques to account for non-response among the food security variables and independent variables.

    Our ordinary least squares results suggest that having at...

    This study seeks to determine the role that parental incarceration plays on the probability of food insecurity among families with children and very low food security of children using micro-level data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being Study (FFCWS). The data set contains the 18-question food security module which allows us to explore the link between incarceration and food insecurity and very low  food security among children, families, and adults. The incidence of very low food security in our data is somewhat higher than the national average, but the incidence of other levels of food security is similar to national aggregates.

    Since there is likely reverse causality in the relationship between parental incarceration and food insecurity, we employ a variety of program evaluation techniques to identify the causal relationship between food insecurity and parental incarceration. We employ imputation techniques to account for non-response among the food security variables and independent variables.

    Our ordinary least squares results suggest that having at least one parent that has ever been incarcerated has a small positive effect (1 to 4 percentage points) on the probability of very low food security among children, adults and households with children, but the results are not significant in various specification. Food insecurity for adults and households with children (a less dire level of food insecurity than very low food security) is affected by parental incarceration under most specifications with magnitudes of impact from 4 to 15 percentage points. This research provides some evidence that incarceration adversely affects children and families in terms of food insecurity. Policies to mitigate the impact could be addressed through the court system whereby children are provided with court-sanctioned support to address food needs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Burch, Traci
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Mass imprisonment is one of the most important policy changes the United States has seen in the past forty years. In 2011, 1.6 million people, or 1 in 200 adults, in the U.S. were in prison (Guerino, Harrison, and Sabol 2011). Understanding the factors that affect neighborhood imprisonment rates is particularly important for improving the quality of life in disadvantaged communities. This paper examines the impact of one such factor, racial residential segregation, on imprisonment rates at the neighborhood level. Key to the strength of this enterprise are block-group level data on imprisonment, crime, and other demographic factors collected from state boards of elections, departments of corrections, departments of public health and the Census Bureau for 2000 for about 5,000 neighborhoods in North Carolina. These data also include information on county racial residential segregation from the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Never before has such a comprehensive data collection been undertaken to determine the causal influence of racial residential...

    Mass imprisonment is one of the most important policy changes the United States has seen in the past forty years. In 2011, 1.6 million people, or 1 in 200 adults, in the U.S. were in prison (Guerino, Harrison, and Sabol 2011). Understanding the factors that affect neighborhood imprisonment rates is particularly important for improving the quality of life in disadvantaged communities. This paper examines the impact of one such factor, racial residential segregation, on imprisonment rates at the neighborhood level. Key to the strength of this enterprise are block-group level data on imprisonment, crime, and other demographic factors collected from state boards of elections, departments of corrections, departments of public health and the Census Bureau for 2000 for about 5,000 neighborhoods in North Carolina. These data also include information on county racial residential segregation from the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Never before has such a comprehensive data collection been undertaken to determine the causal influence of racial residential segregation on mass imprisonment. These uniquely detailed and up-to-date data allow for precise regression analyses at the neighborhood level. The findings indicate that racial residential segregation dramatically affects neighborhood imprisonment rates. Hierarchical linear models that control for neighborhood characteristics such as racial diversity, crime, poverty, unemployment, median income, homeownership, and other factors show that neighborhoods in more segregated counties have higher imprisonment rates than neighborhoods in less segregated counties, all other factors being equal. On average, the difference in imprisonment between neighborhoods in counties with segregation levels of 0 and counties with segregation levels of 100 is about half of a percentage point or slightly more than one standard deviation.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lyons, Christopher J.; Pettit, Becky
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Spending time in prison has become an increasingly common life event for low-skill minority men in the U.S. The Bureau of Justice Statistics now estimates that one in three Black men can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. A growing body of work implicates the prison system in contemporary accounts of racial inequality across a host of social, health, economic, and political domains. However, comparatively little work has examined the impact of the massive increase in the prison system – and growing inequality in exposure to the prison system – on racial inequality over the life course. Using a unique data set drawn from state administrative records, this project examines how spending time in prison affects wage trajectories for a cohort of men over a 14-year period. Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release from prison. Black felons receive fewer returns...

    Spending time in prison has become an increasingly common life event for low-skill minority men in the U.S. The Bureau of Justice Statistics now estimates that one in three Black men can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. A growing body of work implicates the prison system in contemporary accounts of racial inequality across a host of social, health, economic, and political domains. However, comparatively little work has examined the impact of the massive increase in the prison system – and growing inequality in exposure to the prison system – on racial inequality over the life course. Using a unique data set drawn from state administrative records, this project examines how spending time in prison affects wage trajectories for a cohort of men over a 14-year period. Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release from prison. Black felons receive fewer returns to previous work experience than white felons contributing to a widening of the racial wage gap. This research broadens our understanding of the sources of racial stratification over the life course and underscores the relevance of recent policy interventions in the lives of low-skilled minority men. (author abstract)

    This resource is based on a working paper that was previously published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhán
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    This paper explores the relationship between two phenomena that have emerged in the United States: high rates of multipartnered fertility among women and high rates of male involvement with the criminal justice system. We draw our data on mothers from a large, nationally representative survey, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and use 12 separate SIPP panels spanning the 23-year period 1985-2008. Our proxy for male involvement with the criminal justice system is the metropolitan-level arrest rate, computed from FBI Uniform Crime Reports going back to 1980. Controlling for a variety of maternal, state, and metropolitan characteristics, we find a positive correlation between the lagged arrest rate in a mother’s city and the probability that she has children by more than one man. Our estimates of women’s MPF are the first and only ones to be based upon a large, nationally representative sample. (author abstract)

    This paper explores the relationship between two phenomena that have emerged in the United States: high rates of multipartnered fertility among women and high rates of male involvement with the criminal justice system. We draw our data on mothers from a large, nationally representative survey, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and use 12 separate SIPP panels spanning the 23-year period 1985-2008. Our proxy for male involvement with the criminal justice system is the metropolitan-level arrest rate, computed from FBI Uniform Crime Reports going back to 1980. Controlling for a variety of maternal, state, and metropolitan characteristics, we find a positive correlation between the lagged arrest rate in a mother’s city and the probability that she has children by more than one man. Our estimates of women’s MPF are the first and only ones to be based upon a large, nationally representative sample. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Holl, Douglas B.; Kolovich, Lisa; Bellotti, Jeanne; Paxton, Nora; Grady, Mary ; Coffey, Amy C.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    In November 2005, the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) awarded grants to 30 Faith-Based and Community Organizations to implement a Prisoner Re-Entry Initiative (PRI) Demonstration.  The Initiative seeks to strengthen communities affected by large numbers of formerly incarcerated individuals through employment-centered projects that incorporate education, job training, housing referrals, mentoring, and other comprehensive transitional services.  The demonstration is based on the core premise that helping formerly incarcerated individuals find and maintain stable and legal employment will reduce recidivism and increase public safety.

    ETA contracted with an evaluation team from Coffey Consulting, LLC and Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. to evaluate the PRI’s 30 demonstration sites and to examine the implementation and outputs of the PRI.  The evaluation team analyzed demographic, programmatic, output and recidivism information from grantee operations and participants.  In addition, the evaluation analyzed the costs to participating communities for their...

    In November 2005, the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) awarded grants to 30 Faith-Based and Community Organizations to implement a Prisoner Re-Entry Initiative (PRI) Demonstration.  The Initiative seeks to strengthen communities affected by large numbers of formerly incarcerated individuals through employment-centered projects that incorporate education, job training, housing referrals, mentoring, and other comprehensive transitional services.  The demonstration is based on the core premise that helping formerly incarcerated individuals find and maintain stable and legal employment will reduce recidivism and increase public safety.

    ETA contracted with an evaluation team from Coffey Consulting, LLC and Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. to evaluate the PRI’s 30 demonstration sites and to examine the implementation and outputs of the PRI.  The evaluation team analyzed demographic, programmatic, output and recidivism information from grantee operations and participants.  In addition, the evaluation analyzed the costs to participating communities for their provision of services to the formerly incarcerated individuals returning to their communities.

    This report includes a description of the final observations and findings from the evaluation.  It also provides a response to the research questions posed by ETA through a thorough analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data collected throughout the evaluation. (author abstract)

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