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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Edelman, Peter B.; Holzer, Harry J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    In this paper we will briefly review recent trends in employment outcomes for disadvantaged youth, focusing specifically on those who have become "disconnected" from school and the labor market, and why these trends have occurred. We then review a range of policy prescriptions that might improve those outcomes. These policies include: 1) Efforts to enhance education and employment outcomes, both among in-school youth who are at risk of dropping out and becoming disconnected as well as out-of-school youth who have already done so; 2) Policies to increase earnings and incent more labor force participation among youth, such as expanding the eligibility of childless adults (and especially non-custodial parents) for the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and 3) Specific policies to reduce barriers to employment faced by ex-offenders and non-custodial parents (NCPs). We also consider policies that target the demand side of the labor market, in efforts to spur the willingness of employers to hire these young people and perhaps to improve the quality of jobs available to them.  (author...

    In this paper we will briefly review recent trends in employment outcomes for disadvantaged youth, focusing specifically on those who have become "disconnected" from school and the labor market, and why these trends have occurred. We then review a range of policy prescriptions that might improve those outcomes. These policies include: 1) Efforts to enhance education and employment outcomes, both among in-school youth who are at risk of dropping out and becoming disconnected as well as out-of-school youth who have already done so; 2) Policies to increase earnings and incent more labor force participation among youth, such as expanding the eligibility of childless adults (and especially non-custodial parents) for the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and 3) Specific policies to reduce barriers to employment faced by ex-offenders and non-custodial parents (NCPs). We also consider policies that target the demand side of the labor market, in efforts to spur the willingness of employers to hire these young people and perhaps to improve the quality of jobs available to them.  (author abstract)

    Also published as IRP Discussion Paper 1412-13.

  • Individual Author: Nicoli, Lisa Thiebaud; Passarella, Letitia; Born, Catherine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This brief provides a first look at the Hispanic TCA population in Maryland. We find that the Hispanic TCA population is quite different from the non-Hispanic TCA population in several notable ways: Hispanic payees are younger, more likely to be married, and less likely to have a 12th-grade education. Also, they are more likely to be designated as a child-only case, in which the adult casehead is not calculated in the cash benefit amount. Further research is required to determine whether Hispanic child-only cases resemble the typical child-only case in Maryland. (author abstract)

    This brief provides a first look at the Hispanic TCA population in Maryland. We find that the Hispanic TCA population is quite different from the non-Hispanic TCA population in several notable ways: Hispanic payees are younger, more likely to be married, and less likely to have a 12th-grade education. Also, they are more likely to be designated as a child-only case, in which the adult casehead is not calculated in the cash benefit amount. Further research is required to determine whether Hispanic child-only cases resemble the typical child-only case in Maryland. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mohr, Jennifer; Zygmunt, Eva; Clark, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    A case study approach was employed to investigate low-income families’ aspirations for their children and their understandings of their children’s developmental needs. Participants were four women whose children or grandchildren were enrolled in an urban early childhood program and were considered “at risk.” Qualitative methods including interviews, observations, and analysis of artifacts were used. Results indicated that the participants’ aspirations for their children included going to college, as has been shown in other studies to be characteristic of middle-class families. Results also suggested that the participants were insightful about child development, young children’s learning, and the needs of young children. Analysis indicated that participants understood the importance of a shared role between families and teachers in their children’s development, and they wanted to work with their children’s teachers in that manner. The participants expected early childhood programs to not only prepare young children for school but to prepare them to negotiate successfully social...

    A case study approach was employed to investigate low-income families’ aspirations for their children and their understandings of their children’s developmental needs. Participants were four women whose children or grandchildren were enrolled in an urban early childhood program and were considered “at risk.” Qualitative methods including interviews, observations, and analysis of artifacts were used. Results indicated that the participants’ aspirations for their children included going to college, as has been shown in other studies to be characteristic of middle-class families. Results also suggested that the participants were insightful about child development, young children’s learning, and the needs of young children. Analysis indicated that participants understood the importance of a shared role between families and teachers in their children’s development, and they wanted to work with their children’s teachers in that manner. The participants expected early childhood programs to not only prepare young children for school but to prepare them to negotiate successfully social interactions with both children and adults. Implications for teachers, administrators, and teacher education programs are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Grusky, David B.; Wimer, Christopher; Wright, Rachel; Fong, Kelley
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    This qualitative study examines low-income San Franciscans’ decision-making around using or not using food from food banks and government food assistance programs. This project will help understand the in-depth processes that underlie low-income people’s decisions around food assistance, and therefore help public and private stakeholders improve systems of food assistance delivery, particularly around increasing take-up of healthy foods like fresh produce. Using approximately 60 in-depth interviews with low-income San Franciscans, this study will address the following questions: (1) What are the most prevalent reasons for non-use among low-income individuals who do not access food bank services? (2) How do the prevalence of these reasons differ by groups of individuals (parents of schoolchildren, residents of low-income housing projects, and unemployed individuals)? (3) How and why do non-users interface with other government food assistance programs like food stamps, school meals, etc.? And (4) How and why do nonusers utilize cheap, unhealthy food like fast food and “junk” food...

    This qualitative study examines low-income San Franciscans’ decision-making around using or not using food from food banks and government food assistance programs. This project will help understand the in-depth processes that underlie low-income people’s decisions around food assistance, and therefore help public and private stakeholders improve systems of food assistance delivery, particularly around increasing take-up of healthy foods like fresh produce. Using approximately 60 in-depth interviews with low-income San Franciscans, this study will address the following questions: (1) What are the most prevalent reasons for non-use among low-income individuals who do not access food bank services? (2) How do the prevalence of these reasons differ by groups of individuals (parents of schoolchildren, residents of low-income housing projects, and unemployed individuals)? (3) How and why do non-users interface with other government food assistance programs like food stamps, school meals, etc.? And (4) How and why do nonusers utilize cheap, unhealthy food like fast food and “junk” food vs. the healthier food, including fresh produce, that they might get from food bank sites? (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Andrews, Nancy; Erickson, David
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2012

    One in six Americans now lives in poverty — the highest level in half a century. Poverty has spread beyond cities to suburbs and rural communities and is being transferred from one generation to the next. At the same time, we know more about what it takes to build vibrant communities and to help people lead healthy, productive lives. We also know that expanding access to affordable housing, good schools, transportation, jobs, and even supermarkets and parks, can mean better health and life outcomes for people and revitalize whole communities.

    Investing in What Works for America’s Communities is a new book that calls on leaders from the public, private, and nonprofit sectors to build on what we know is working to move the needle on poverty. The book’s impressive list of authors represents a broad range of sectors including federal agencies, philanthropy, housing academia, health, and the private sector. This collection of essays provides dozens of innovative ideas that can bring new opportunities to America’s struggling communities. It calls on leaders, from the...

    One in six Americans now lives in poverty — the highest level in half a century. Poverty has spread beyond cities to suburbs and rural communities and is being transferred from one generation to the next. At the same time, we know more about what it takes to build vibrant communities and to help people lead healthy, productive lives. We also know that expanding access to affordable housing, good schools, transportation, jobs, and even supermarkets and parks, can mean better health and life outcomes for people and revitalize whole communities.

    Investing in What Works for America’s Communities is a new book that calls on leaders from the public, private, and nonprofit sectors to build on what we know is working to move the needle on poverty. The book’s impressive list of authors represents a broad range of sectors including federal agencies, philanthropy, housing academia, health, and the private sector. This collection of essays provides dozens of innovative ideas that can bring new opportunities to America’s struggling communities. It calls on leaders, from the public, private, and nonprofit sectors to recognize that they can work smarter and achieve more by working together.

    Table of Contents:

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    FOREWORD : Building Sustainable Communities, Elizabeth A. Duke, Governor, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

    I COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: PAST AND PRESENT

    • The Past, Present, and Future of Community Development in the United States, Alexander von Hoffman, Harvard University
    • The Continuing Evolution of American Poverty and Its Implications for Community Development, Alan Berube, Brookings Institution
    • Crossing Over to an Improved Era of Community Development, Eric Belsky, Harvard University and Jennifer Fauth, City of New York

    II OPEN FORUM: VOICES AND OPINIONS FROM LEADERS IN POLICY, THE FIELD, AND ACADEMIA

    FROM LEADERS IN POLICY

    • Fighting Poverty through Community Development, Shaun Donovan, U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education; and, Kathleen Sebelius, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services

    FROM LEADERS IN THE FIELD

    • America’s Tomorrow: Race, Place, and the Equity Agenda, Angela Glover Blackwell, PolicyLink
    • People Transforming Communities. For Good., Angela Blanchard, Neighborhood Centers, Inc.
    • Future of Community Development: How CDFIs Can Best Ride the Impact Investing Wave, Antony Bugg-Levine, Nonprofit Finance Fund
    • Community Development in Rural America: Collaborative, Regional, and Comprehensive, Cynthia M. Duncan, AGree
    • It Takes a Neighborhood: Purpose Built Communities and Neighborhood Transformation, Shirley Franklin, Purpose Built Communities and David Edwards, IBM Corporation
    • The Future of Community Development, Paul Grogan, The Boston Foundation
    • From Community to Prosperity, Ben Hecht, Living Cities
    • Owning Your Own Job Is a Beautiful Thing: Community Wealth Building in Cleveland, Ohio, Ted Howard, Democracy Collaborative
    • Why Health, Poverty, and Community Development Are Inseparable, Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
    • The World Has Changed and So Must We, Clara Miller, F. B. Heron Foundation
    • Getting to Scale: The Need for a New Model in Housing and Community Development, Sister Lillian Murphy, Mercy Housing and Janet Falk, Mercy Housing
    • What Problem Are We Trying to Solve?, Mark A. Pinsky, Opportunity Finance Network
    • Transit-Oriented Development Is Good Community Development, John Robert Smith, Reconnecting America and Allison Brooks, Reconnecting America
    • Household and Community Financial Stability: Essential and Interconnected, Jennifer Tescher, Center for Financial Services Innovation

    FROM LEADERS IN ACADEMIA

    • Assessing Health Effects of Community Development, Nancy E. Adler, University of California, San Francisco
    • Deep Democracy Is Not Meetings That Last Forever: Community Development Next, Xavier de Souza Briggs, Massachusetts Institute of Technology  and J. Phillip Thompson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    • Rules, Not Resources, Mark Calabria, Cato Institute
    • Our History with Concentrated Poverty, Peter Edelman, Georgetown University Law Center
    • Crime and Community Development, Ingrid Gould Ellen, New York University
    • Early Childhood Development: Creating Healthy Communities with Greater Efficiency and Effectiveness, Gabriella Conti, University of Chicago and James J. Heckman, University of Chicago
    • Mobilizing Science to Reduce Intergenerational Poverty, James M. Radner, University of Toronto and Jack P. Shonkoff, Harvard University

    III MAPPING THE FUTURE: SYNTHESIZING THEMES AND

    IDEAS FOR NEXT STEPS

    • Integration and Innovation in a Time of Stress: Doing the Best for People and Place, Ellen Seidman, Visiting Scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
    • Routinizing the Extraordinary, David Erickson, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; Ian Galloway, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; and, Naomi Cytron, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
    • Inflection Point: New Vision, New Strategy, New Organization, Nancy O. Andrews, Low Income Investment Fund  and Nicolas Retsinas, Harvard Business School

    (author abstract)

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