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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Ziliak, James P.; Gundersen, Craig
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The prevalence of multigenerational families is on the rise in the United States, as is food insecurity. We estimate the effect of resident grandchildren on the risk of and transitions in food insecurity using repeated cross sections and longitudinally linked two-year panels of the Current Population Survey from 2001-2010. We find that rates of food insecurity in families with a grandchild present are at least twice as high in a typical year compared to families without a resident grandchild, and the extent of very low food security increased substantially faster among these households over the past decade. The rise in food insecurity during and after the Great Recession is due to both increased entry into food insecurity and decreased exit out of food insecurity. A similar trend accounts for the rise in multigenerational households during the recession—grandchildren were more likely to move in with their grandparents, and once there, were less likely to move out. There are also important differences in risk factors for food insecurity between multigenerational families and those...

    The prevalence of multigenerational families is on the rise in the United States, as is food insecurity. We estimate the effect of resident grandchildren on the risk of and transitions in food insecurity using repeated cross sections and longitudinally linked two-year panels of the Current Population Survey from 2001-2010. We find that rates of food insecurity in families with a grandchild present are at least twice as high in a typical year compared to families without a resident grandchild, and the extent of very low food security increased substantially faster among these households over the past decade. The rise in food insecurity during and after the Great Recession is due to both increased entry into food insecurity and decreased exit out of food insecurity. A similar trend accounts for the rise in multigenerational households during the recession—grandchildren were more likely to move in with their grandparents, and once there, were less likely to move out. There are also important differences in risk factors for food insecurity between multigenerational families and those with no grandchildren present. Our transition models show that whether grandchildren remain, or in periods of transition, multigenerational families are at heighted risk of entering food insecurity and remaining in this state. However, the entry of a grandchild may not always be a negative for the family’s food security, nor the exit of the child a positive. Entrance of a child seems to buffer the family from extreme forms of food insecurity while exit exposes the family to risk of deeper food insecurity. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bruce, Donald; Thacker, Angela; Shone, Bryan; Ullrich, Laura
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    While U.S. welfare programs have traditionally targeted single-parent households, the “child-only” caseload is large and growing. The Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County’s Office of Metropolitan Social Services contracted with the University of Tennessee’s Center for Business and Economic Research to conduct a study of this important but often-overlooked segment of the welfare caseload. MSS desires to learn more about child-only cases with non-parent caretakers in Davidson County, such that a menu of enhanced services can be developed for the broader population of kinship caregivers. Non-parental child-only cases involve situations in which children reside with family members other than their own parents or non-related legal guardians, most often grandparents, great-grandparents, aunts, or uncles. These cases, which comprise about 60 percent of Tennessee’s child-only caseload, are likely to have different needs than typical Families First assistance groups.

    Our study presents the first detailed statistical portrait of the current non-parent child-only...

    While U.S. welfare programs have traditionally targeted single-parent households, the “child-only” caseload is large and growing. The Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County’s Office of Metropolitan Social Services contracted with the University of Tennessee’s Center for Business and Economic Research to conduct a study of this important but often-overlooked segment of the welfare caseload. MSS desires to learn more about child-only cases with non-parent caretakers in Davidson County, such that a menu of enhanced services can be developed for the broader population of kinship caregivers. Non-parental child-only cases involve situations in which children reside with family members other than their own parents or non-related legal guardians, most often grandparents, great-grandparents, aunts, or uncles. These cases, which comprise about 60 percent of Tennessee’s child-only caseload, are likely to have different needs than typical Families First assistance groups.

    Our study presents the first detailed statistical portrait of the current non-parent child-only caseload in Davidson County. We supplement administrative data from monthly Families First records with a detailed survey of non-parent caretakers of child-only cases in Davidson County. Of the 10,277 child-only cases with non-parent caretakers in the state of Tennessee, 1,285 resided in Davidson County and 617 were surveyed for this report.

    We find that non-parent caretakers of child-only cases in Davidson County are quite different from statewide averages in several important ways. They are less likely to be married and less likely to be grandparents of the eligible children. They are younger, more likely to be Black, and less likely to be disabled or to receive SSI than state averages. They received slightly more in Food Stamps and other unearned income. They are less likely to own a vehicle and more likely to rent than own their current housing. They also face higher monthly payments for mortgages, property taxes, and utility bills. Results indicate that non-parent caretakers of child-only cases are generally better off than caretakers of non-child-only cases. That said, a significant percentage of our Davidson County survey sample report having one or more difficulties. The areas for the most immediate and cost-effective impact appear to be information and referral, case management, education, and training.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mohr, Jennifer; Zygmunt, Eva; Clark, Patricia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    A case study approach was employed to investigate low-income families’ aspirations for their children and their understandings of their children’s developmental needs. Participants were four women whose children or grandchildren were enrolled in an urban early childhood program and were considered “at risk.” Qualitative methods including interviews, observations, and analysis of artifacts were used. Results indicated that the participants’ aspirations for their children included going to college, as has been shown in other studies to be characteristic of middle-class families. Results also suggested that the participants were insightful about child development, young children’s learning, and the needs of young children. Analysis indicated that participants understood the importance of a shared role between families and teachers in their children’s development, and they wanted to work with their children’s teachers in that manner. The participants expected early childhood programs to not only prepare young children for school but to prepare them to negotiate successfully social...

    A case study approach was employed to investigate low-income families’ aspirations for their children and their understandings of their children’s developmental needs. Participants were four women whose children or grandchildren were enrolled in an urban early childhood program and were considered “at risk.” Qualitative methods including interviews, observations, and analysis of artifacts were used. Results indicated that the participants’ aspirations for their children included going to college, as has been shown in other studies to be characteristic of middle-class families. Results also suggested that the participants were insightful about child development, young children’s learning, and the needs of young children. Analysis indicated that participants understood the importance of a shared role between families and teachers in their children’s development, and they wanted to work with their children’s teachers in that manner. The participants expected early childhood programs to not only prepare young children for school but to prepare them to negotiate successfully social interactions with both children and adults. Implications for teachers, administrators, and teacher education programs are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hegar, Rebecca L.; Scannapieco, Maria
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This article discusses a welfare reform project conducted in the state of Washington.  This five year longitudinal study tracked the market interest of women on welfare during this time.  For the most part, the project was unsuccessful in moving the majority of these women into the labor market.  This article explores an underlying cause and possible explanation for the choices made by these women. (author abstract)

    This article discusses a welfare reform project conducted in the state of Washington.  This five year longitudinal study tracked the market interest of women on welfare during this time.  For the most part, the project was unsuccessful in moving the majority of these women into the labor market.  This article explores an underlying cause and possible explanation for the choices made by these women. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ehrle, Jennifer; Geen, Rob
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    This article uses national data to look at the differences between children in kinship and non-kinship care arrangements. Three groups are compared: children in non-kin foster care, children in kinship foster care, and children in “voluntary” kinship care. Children in voluntary kinship care have come to the attention of child welfare services, are placed with kin, but unlike those in kinship foster care, these children are not in state custody. Findings suggest that children in the kin arrangements faced greater hardships than those in non-kin care. They more often lived in poor families and experienced food insecurity. They were more likely to live with a non-married caregiver who was not working and did not have a high school degree. And fewer kin than expected received services to overcome these hardships. In addition, nearly 300,000 children lived in voluntary kinship care arrangements; these children are of particular concern because they are not in state custody and therefore may or may not be monitored by a child welfare agency. (author abstract)

    This article uses national data to look at the differences between children in kinship and non-kinship care arrangements. Three groups are compared: children in non-kin foster care, children in kinship foster care, and children in “voluntary” kinship care. Children in voluntary kinship care have come to the attention of child welfare services, are placed with kin, but unlike those in kinship foster care, these children are not in state custody. Findings suggest that children in the kin arrangements faced greater hardships than those in non-kin care. They more often lived in poor families and experienced food insecurity. They were more likely to live with a non-married caregiver who was not working and did not have a high school degree. And fewer kin than expected received services to overcome these hardships. In addition, nearly 300,000 children lived in voluntary kinship care arrangements; these children are of particular concern because they are not in state custody and therefore may or may not be monitored by a child welfare agency. (author abstract)

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