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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Mora, Marie T.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    Using public-use data from the 2009 American Community Survey, this study analyzes poverty rates among Hispanic and Asian adults while considering “fractionalized” immigrant generations: Generation 1.75 (those who migrated to the U.S. before the age of six), Generation 1.5 (those who migrated at between the ages of 6-18 and acquired some of their primary or secondary education in the U.S.), and Generation 1.0 (those who migrated after completing all of their primary and secondary education abroad). Consistent with other studies on immigrant/native poverty differentials, first generation immigrants in both groups were significantly more likely to be impoverished than U.S. natives. However, Generation 1.75, and to a lesser extent, Generation 1.5 Hispanic adults had significantly lower poverty rates than their U.S.-born counterparts, while Generation 1.75 and 1.5 Asian adults had similar poverty rates as U.S.-born Asians. Differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics do not fully explain these differences. Such findings indicate that poverty reduction...

    Using public-use data from the 2009 American Community Survey, this study analyzes poverty rates among Hispanic and Asian adults while considering “fractionalized” immigrant generations: Generation 1.75 (those who migrated to the U.S. before the age of six), Generation 1.5 (those who migrated at between the ages of 6-18 and acquired some of their primary or secondary education in the U.S.), and Generation 1.0 (those who migrated after completing all of their primary and secondary education abroad). Consistent with other studies on immigrant/native poverty differentials, first generation immigrants in both groups were significantly more likely to be impoverished than U.S. natives. However, Generation 1.75, and to a lesser extent, Generation 1.5 Hispanic adults had significantly lower poverty rates than their U.S.-born counterparts, while Generation 1.75 and 1.5 Asian adults had similar poverty rates as U.S.-born Asians. Differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics do not fully explain these differences. Such findings indicate that poverty reduction policies might be more effective if they go beyond considering broad classifications of race/ethnicity and birthplace, incorporating at a minimum the timing of migration among foreign-born in their lifecycles. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Friedlander, Daniel; Martinson, Karin
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    Only small education effects were found for a large-scale program requiring participation in basic education by adult welfare recipients without a high school diploma or with low reading or math pretest scores. Positive results found in some of the research sites suggest that, with a focused program effort, GED certificates and improved achievement test scores may be obtained for individuals with pretest scores that are relatively high for this population. Raising achievement levels and increasing GED receipt appreciably among the many welfare recipients with lower pretest scores will require substantially improved program effectiveness. (author abstract)

    Only small education effects were found for a large-scale program requiring participation in basic education by adult welfare recipients without a high school diploma or with low reading or math pretest scores. Positive results found in some of the research sites suggest that, with a focused program effort, GED certificates and improved achievement test scores may be obtained for individuals with pretest scores that are relatively high for this population. Raising achievement levels and increasing GED receipt appreciably among the many welfare recipients with lower pretest scores will require substantially improved program effectiveness. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cole, Patricia; Buel, Sarah M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper looks at family violence and its impact upon the transition from welfare to work under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) established by the 1996 welfare reform. Recommendations are presented which encourages advocates and others to increase their involvement in welfare reform and other initiatives that target families living in extreme poverty. The paper addressed two primary issues. First, working within the TANF and welfare to work systems were discussed in order to identify and assist women in violent partnerships. And, second, helping low-income women gain employment and other necessary assistance so they are able to support themselves and escape the violent situation their poverty had perpetuated. Insights offered included: (1) women in extremely low-income households are much more likely to be victims of violence than women in higher-income households; (2) traditional mainstream approaches to helping battered women are often ineffective; and (3) it is impossible to separate women’s experiences with and responses to partner violence from...

    This paper looks at family violence and its impact upon the transition from welfare to work under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) established by the 1996 welfare reform. Recommendations are presented which encourages advocates and others to increase their involvement in welfare reform and other initiatives that target families living in extreme poverty. The paper addressed two primary issues. First, working within the TANF and welfare to work systems were discussed in order to identify and assist women in violent partnerships. And, second, helping low-income women gain employment and other necessary assistance so they are able to support themselves and escape the violent situation their poverty had perpetuated. Insights offered included: (1) women in extremely low-income households are much more likely to be victims of violence than women in higher-income households; (2) traditional mainstream approaches to helping battered women are often ineffective; and (3) it is impossible to separate women’s experiences with and responses to partner violence from the impact of poverty and other oppressions in their lives. The paper emphasized the Family Violence Option (FVO) allowing States to exempt TANF recipients from workforce participation if it would escalate domestic violence, impede escape from domestic violence, or result in sanctions against women as a result of domestic violence. Several insights were gained on how to reach and assist women in dealing with violent relationships that included: (1) services need to be located at or near TANF offices; (2) programs need to be race conscious, being both sensitive and responsive to different cultural experiences and values in order to achieve program participation; (3) basic survival needs, such as housing, food, clothing, or health care must be resolved before or as part of the work around family violence issues; and (4) assistance must be offered to increase their safety while in the abusive relationship. Several recommendations were offered as to how women in poverty who suffer from domestic violence should be treated that included: (1) providing pre- and post- employment education and training; (2) providing services necessary to gain and maintain living-wage employment; and (3) providing ongoing support in the areas of housing, child care, food stamps, and health care for those unable to get and keep jobs that have adequate wages and benefits. Welfare reform is seen as having brought attention to many battered women previously overlooked. Creating effective solutions is viewed as necessary to allow them to be both safe and financially secure. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hummer, Robert. A.; Hamilton, Erin. R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born ethnic counterparts. Immigrant-native differences are particularly large for Asians, whites, and blacks.

    The authors also find racial and ethnic differences in the composition and stability of fragile families over time. Although most parents of all racial and ethnic groups are romantically involved at the time of their child's birth, African American women are less likely to be in a cohabiting relationship than are white and Hispanic mothers. Over time, these racial and ethnic differences become more pronounced, with African American mothers having the lowest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the highest breakup rates, and Mexican immigrant mothers having the highest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the lowest breakup...

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born ethnic counterparts. Immigrant-native differences are particularly large for Asians, whites, and blacks.

    The authors also find racial and ethnic differences in the composition and stability of fragile families over time. Although most parents of all racial and ethnic groups are romantically involved at the time of their child's birth, African American women are less likely to be in a cohabiting relationship than are white and Hispanic mothers. Over time, these racial and ethnic differences become more pronounced, with African American mothers having the lowest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the highest breakup rates, and Mexican immigrant mothers having the highest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the lowest breakup rates.

    Fragile families have far fewer socioeconomic resources than married families, though resources vary within fragile families by race and ethnicity. White mothers, in general, have more socioeconomic resources than black, Mexican American, and Mexican immigrant mothers; they are more likely to have incomes above the poverty limit, more likely to own a car, less likely to have children from a prior relationship, and more likely to report living in a safe neighborhood. Access to health care and child care follows a similar pattern. The exception is education; black and white unmarried mothers are equally likely to have finished high school, and Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers are less likely to have done so.

    The authors argue that socioeconomic differences are by far the biggest driver of racial and ethnic differences in marriage and family stability, and they support reforms to strengthen parents' economic security. They also discuss how sex ratios and culture affect family formation and stability. In particular, they note that despite severe poverty, Mexican immigrant families have high rates of marriage and cohabitation—an advantage that erodes by the second generation with assimilation. To address the paradox that marriage declines as socioeconomic status improves, they support policies that reinforce rather than undermine the family ties of Mexican immigrants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schneider, Jo Anne
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2006

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

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