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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Tarullo, Louisa; West, Jerry; Aikens, Nikki; Hulsey, Lara
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    This brief profiles the Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in the program in fall 2006, their home environments, and the Head Start classroom environments they entered. The first section of the report offers background on the study methodology and sample, followed by information on the children’s characteristics, family demographics and home life, and child cognitive, social-emotional, and health status at program entry. The final section details teacher and classroom characteristics. (author abstract)

    This brief profiles the Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in the program in fall 2006, their home environments, and the Head Start classroom environments they entered. The first section of the report offers background on the study methodology and sample, followed by information on the children’s characteristics, family demographics and home life, and child cognitive, social-emotional, and health status at program entry. The final section details teacher and classroom characteristics. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Keefe, Kathleen; Sama-Miller, Emily; Castner, Laura; Bardos, Maura; Elizabeth Clary; Wissel, Sarah; Vittoriano, Larry
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The number and breadth of efforts across federal and state agencies to improve technology and streamline service delivery supporting access to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service’s (FNS) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and other public benefits have risen over the last decade. Technology and policy changes often operate together in the states to offer clients new ways to access benefits; such changes also offer staff and partner organizations improved procedures for conducting business. As modernization efforts have multiplied and expanded, so has FNS’s interest in how states implement and monitor their efforts in an environment of increased demand and restricted resources. States, too, have an interest in seeing how well other states are performing. This report is second that stem from the same data collection effort. That effort sought the participation of all states and the District of Columbia, and the reports are based on the responses of the 45 that were able to participate. This report specifically delves into states’ experiences...

    The number and breadth of efforts across federal and state agencies to improve technology and streamline service delivery supporting access to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service’s (FNS) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and other public benefits have risen over the last decade. Technology and policy changes often operate together in the states to offer clients new ways to access benefits; such changes also offer staff and partner organizations improved procedures for conducting business. As modernization efforts have multiplied and expanded, so has FNS’s interest in how states implement and monitor their efforts in an environment of increased demand and restricted resources. States, too, have an interest in seeing how well other states are performing. This report is second that stem from the same data collection effort. That effort sought the participation of all states and the District of Columbia, and the reports are based on the responses of the 45 that were able to participate. This report specifically delves into states’ experiences with measuring their modernization initiatives, while the other report focuses more broadly on experiences across the nation. The overall effort focused on a subset of eight modernization initiatives of greatest interest to FNS: call centers, online applications, document imaging, kiosks for application submission, partnering with non-SNAP organizations, online expedited applications, waiver of face-to-face interviews, and shortened interviews. This report (1) describes each state’s performance measures and standards in detail (particularly in state-specific appendices that constitute most of this report), and (2) explains how these measures are implemented and how states use the results. For this report, we sought specific examples of the situations that lead to varied performance measurement approaches by examining the information that states, localities, and SNAP partner organizations provided us in surveys, interviews, and on-site observations. (Throughout, we use “performance measures” to refer to measures, as well as the aggregate data and data elements that make up the measures. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fox, Mary Kay; Condon, Elizabeth; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Niland, Katherine; Mercury, Denise; Forrestal, Sarah; Cabili, Charlotte; Oddo, Vanessa; Gordon, Anne; Wozny, Nathan; Killewald, Alexandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) provide meals and snacks to children during the school year. The overarching goal of both programs, known collectively as the school meal programs, is to ensure that children do not go hungry and have access to nutritious meals and snacks that support normal growth and development. All public and private nonprofit schools are eligible to participate in the school meal programs and any child in a participating school is eligible to obtain school meals. Students from low-income households are eligible to receive meals free or at a reduced price.

    The school meal programs are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NSLP is the second largest of 15 nutrition assistance programs administered by FNS. Established in 1946, the program operates in virtually all public schools and 94 percent of all schools (public and private combined) in the United States. (Ralston et al. 2008). In fiscal year (FY) 2010, the program served lunches to an...

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) provide meals and snacks to children during the school year. The overarching goal of both programs, known collectively as the school meal programs, is to ensure that children do not go hungry and have access to nutritious meals and snacks that support normal growth and development. All public and private nonprofit schools are eligible to participate in the school meal programs and any child in a participating school is eligible to obtain school meals. Students from low-income households are eligible to receive meals free or at a reduced price.

    The school meal programs are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NSLP is the second largest of 15 nutrition assistance programs administered by FNS. Established in 1946, the program operates in virtually all public schools and 94 percent of all schools (public and private combined) in the United States. (Ralston et al. 2008). In fiscal year (FY) 2010, the program served lunches to an average of 31.7 million children on an average school day. Almost two-thirds (65 percent) of these lunches were served free or at a reduced price to children from low-income households. Since 1998, schools participating in the NSLP have had the option of providing snacks to children in eligible afterschool programs. In FY 2010, 1.3 million afterschool snacks were served through the NSLP on an average school day.

    The SBP began as a pilot program in 1966 and was made permanent in 1975. Over the years, the program has steadily expanded. In school year (SY) 2009–2010, the SBP was available in 89 percent of schools that operated the NSLP. In FY 2010, the program served 11.7 million children on an average school day. The SBP primarily serves children from low-income households—in FY 2010, 84 percent of SBP meals were served free or at a reduced price. Since the 1980s, FNS has assessed the school meal programs on a periodic basis. This report summarizes findings from the most recent assessment—the fourth School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-IV), which was completed in SY 2009–2010.3 Mathematica Policy Research conducted SNDA-IV under contract with FNS. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lubin, Andrea; Deka, Devajyoti
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Transportation barriers are often cited as the primary reason for the discrepancy in employment rate between persons with disabilities and others. Yet little information is available about the transportation barriers and needs of persons with disabilities who are searching for employment. The primary objective of this descriptive paper is to share valuable information from a unique survey of persons with disabilities who are actively searching for employment in New Jersey. The paper examines the role of public transportation in providing job access to persons with disabilities. It provides information and insights on the availability, usage, needs, barriers, and perceptions of the survey respondents about different public transit modes, and discusses the implications for agencies that provide public and human services transportation. The research shows that despite frequent utilization of public transportation by job-seeking persons with disabilities, many are dissatisfied with public transportation. While satisfaction seems to be high regarding ADA-compliant vehicle equipment,...

    Transportation barriers are often cited as the primary reason for the discrepancy in employment rate between persons with disabilities and others. Yet little information is available about the transportation barriers and needs of persons with disabilities who are searching for employment. The primary objective of this descriptive paper is to share valuable information from a unique survey of persons with disabilities who are actively searching for employment in New Jersey. The paper examines the role of public transportation in providing job access to persons with disabilities. It provides information and insights on the availability, usage, needs, barriers, and perceptions of the survey respondents about different public transit modes, and discusses the implications for agencies that provide public and human services transportation. The research shows that despite frequent utilization of public transportation by job-seeking persons with disabilities, many are dissatisfied with public transportation. While satisfaction seems to be high regarding ADA-compliant vehicle equipment, many are dissatisfied with the level of transit service and environmental barriers between homes and transit stations/stops. It can be inferred from the results that a multitude of strategies will be needed to address the travel needs and barriers of job-seeking persons with disabilities in the state. In addition to assisting human services transportation planning and providing insights to vocational rehabilitation counselors, the observations in the study will be used to lay down the framework for more rigorous research on transportation needs and barriers of persons with disabilities. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Moiduddin, Emily; Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa; West, Jerry
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    Head Start is a national program that aims to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational, health, nutritional, social, and other services to enrolled children and families. The Head Start program provides grants to local public and private nonprofit and for-profit agencies to provide comprehensive child development services to economically disadvantaged children and families; the Office of Head Start emphasizes a special focus on helping preschoolers develop the reading and mathematics skills they need to be successful in school. The program also seeks to engage parents in their children’s learning and to promote their progress toward their own educational, literacy, and employment goals (Administration for Children and Families [ACF] 2009).

    The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was first launched in 1997 as a periodic longitudinal study of program performance. Successive nationally representative samples of Head Start children, their families, classrooms, and programs...

    Head Start is a national program that aims to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational, health, nutritional, social, and other services to enrolled children and families. The Head Start program provides grants to local public and private nonprofit and for-profit agencies to provide comprehensive child development services to economically disadvantaged children and families; the Office of Head Start emphasizes a special focus on helping preschoolers develop the reading and mathematics skills they need to be successful in school. The program also seeks to engage parents in their children’s learning and to promote their progress toward their own educational, literacy, and employment goals (Administration for Children and Families [ACF] 2009).

    The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was first launched in 1997 as a periodic longitudinal study of program performance. Successive nationally representative samples of Head Start children, their families, classrooms, and programs provide descriptive information on the population served; staff qualifications, credentials, beliefs, and opinions; classroom practices and quality measures; and child and family outcomes. FACES includes a battery of direct child assessments across multiple domains. It also comprises interviews with the child’s parents, teachers, and program managers, as well as direct observations of classroom quality. (For background information on FACES 2006, see West et al. 2007, Tarullo et al. 2008, West et al. 2008; and West et al. 2010.) FACES is a tool for measuring Head Start program performance at the national level. This recurring data collection provides the means to assess program performance both currently and over time.

    This set of tables is designed to accompany a research brief which profiles the second year in the program for 3-year-old Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in fall 2006 (ACF 2010b) and are still attending in spring 2008. FACES selects two groups of first-time enrollees— those entering at age 4 and those entering at age 3—who are expected to attend Head Start for one or two years, respectively, prior to kindergarten entry. The 3-year-old group is of particular interest for several reasons: (1) as the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR) shows, 3-year-olds occupy a growing share of the total population served by Head Start, increasing from 24 percent in 1980 to 40 percent in 2007 (ACF 2010a); (2) they may differ in important characteristics from children who enter at age 4 in terms of developmental level and exposure to prior care experiences; and (3) they have the potential to continue in Head Start for two program years or to leave for another prekindergarten experience. (author abstract)

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