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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Moiduddin, Emily; Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa; West, Jerry
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    Head Start is a national program that aims to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational, health, nutritional, social, and other services to enrolled children and families. The Head Start program provides grants to local public and private nonprofit and for-profit agencies to provide comprehensive child development services to economically disadvantaged children and families; the Office of Head Start emphasizes a special focus on helping preschoolers develop the reading and mathematics skills they need to be successful in school. The program also seeks to engage parents in their children’s learning and to promote their progress toward their own educational, literacy, and employment goals (Administration for Children and Families [ACF] 2009).

    The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was first launched in 1997 as a periodic longitudinal study of program performance. Successive nationally representative samples of Head Start children, their families, classrooms, and programs...

    Head Start is a national program that aims to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational, health, nutritional, social, and other services to enrolled children and families. The Head Start program provides grants to local public and private nonprofit and for-profit agencies to provide comprehensive child development services to economically disadvantaged children and families; the Office of Head Start emphasizes a special focus on helping preschoolers develop the reading and mathematics skills they need to be successful in school. The program also seeks to engage parents in their children’s learning and to promote their progress toward their own educational, literacy, and employment goals (Administration for Children and Families [ACF] 2009).

    The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was first launched in 1997 as a periodic longitudinal study of program performance. Successive nationally representative samples of Head Start children, their families, classrooms, and programs provide descriptive information on the population served; staff qualifications, credentials, beliefs, and opinions; classroom practices and quality measures; and child and family outcomes. FACES includes a battery of direct child assessments across multiple domains. It also comprises interviews with the child’s parents, teachers, and program managers, as well as direct observations of classroom quality. (For background information on FACES 2006, see West et al. 2007, Tarullo et al. 2008, West et al. 2008; and West et al. 2010.) FACES is a tool for measuring Head Start program performance at the national level. This recurring data collection provides the means to assess program performance both currently and over time.

    This set of tables is designed to accompany a research brief which profiles the second year in the program for 3-year-old Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in fall 2006 (ACF 2010b) and are still attending in spring 2008. FACES selects two groups of first-time enrollees— those entering at age 4 and those entering at age 3—who are expected to attend Head Start for one or two years, respectively, prior to kindergarten entry. The 3-year-old group is of particular interest for several reasons: (1) as the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR) shows, 3-year-olds occupy a growing share of the total population served by Head Start, increasing from 24 percent in 1980 to 40 percent in 2007 (ACF 2010a); (2) they may differ in important characteristics from children who enter at age 4 in terms of developmental level and exposure to prior care experiences; and (3) they have the potential to continue in Head Start for two program years or to leave for another prekindergarten experience. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tarullo, Louisa; Aikens, Nikki; Moiduddin, Emily; West, Jerry
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This brief profiles the second year in the program for 3-year-old Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in fall 2006 and are still attending in spring 2008. FACES selects two groups of first-time enrollees—those entering at age 4 and those entering at age 3—who are expected to attend Head Start for one or two years, respectively, prior to kindergarten entry. The 3-year-old group is of particular interest for several reasons: (1) as the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR) shows, 3-year-olds occupy a growing share of the total population served by Head Start, increasing from 24 percent in 1980 to 40 percent in 2007; (2) they may differ in important characteristics from children who enter at age 4 in terms of developmental level and exposure to prior child care experiences; and (3) they have the potential to continue in Head Start for two program years or to leave for another prekindergarten experience. (author abstract)

    This brief profiles the second year in the program for 3-year-old Head Start children and families who were newly enrolled in fall 2006 and are still attending in spring 2008. FACES selects two groups of first-time enrollees—those entering at age 4 and those entering at age 3—who are expected to attend Head Start for one or two years, respectively, prior to kindergarten entry. The 3-year-old group is of particular interest for several reasons: (1) as the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR) shows, 3-year-olds occupy a growing share of the total population served by Head Start, increasing from 24 percent in 1980 to 40 percent in 2007; (2) they may differ in important characteristics from children who enter at age 4 in terms of developmental level and exposure to prior child care experiences; and (3) they have the potential to continue in Head Start for two program years or to leave for another prekindergarten experience. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Greenberg, Brian; Korb, Sophia; Cronon, Kristen; Anderson, Robert
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Purpose – Housing First has been upheld as an evidence-based best practice for transitioning homeless individuals into permanent housing in a maximally cost-effective and humane manner. However, there is much variance in the implementation and structure of Housing First programming in the USA. This paper aims to focus on a collaborative, interdisciplinary Housing First effort to house and provide case management and ancillary services to chronically homeless individuals in The City of San Mateo, California.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a case study in which the philosophy, structure, and impact of San Mateo's outreach and housing team are discussed. To explore the project's impact, data concerning arrests and other criminal justice contacts, as well as health costs associated with these clients, both prior to and post housing and services, were collected and analyzed. These are corroborated with qualitative data on client outcomes.

    Findings – After participants received housing and wrap-around supportive services provided...

    Purpose – Housing First has been upheld as an evidence-based best practice for transitioning homeless individuals into permanent housing in a maximally cost-effective and humane manner. However, there is much variance in the implementation and structure of Housing First programming in the USA. This paper aims to focus on a collaborative, interdisciplinary Housing First effort to house and provide case management and ancillary services to chronically homeless individuals in The City of San Mateo, California.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a case study in which the philosophy, structure, and impact of San Mateo's outreach and housing team are discussed. To explore the project's impact, data concerning arrests and other criminal justice contacts, as well as health costs associated with these clients, both prior to and post housing and services, were collected and analyzed. These are corroborated with qualitative data on client outcomes.

    Findings – After participants received housing and wrap-around supportive services provided through the collaboration of police, local stakeholders, and non-profits, the cost of medical care and criminal justice interventions were dramatically reduced. While challenges such as the availability of housing units remain, the findings of this study strongly support the interdisciplinary outreach team as a model for Housing First programming.

    Research limitations/implications – This is an in-depth study, derived from a particularly innovative project; and therefore the sample size is limited by the size of the project.

    Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in its analysis of a Housing First model which incorporates an interdisciplinary outreach team designed to provide highly individualized care for clients. The San Mateo permanent supportive housing pilot project is itself unique in that it incorporates a Homeless Outreach Team (HOT) comprised of the police, other government entities, local stakeholders, and other non-profits engaged with homelessness. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Love, John M.; Constantine, Jill; Paulsell, Diane; Boller, Kimberly; Ross, Christine; Raikes, Helen; Brady-Smith, Christy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    In 1994, the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers set forth a vision for Early Head Start programs in declaring that all child care settings used by Early Head Start families, whether or not the program provides the care directly, must meet the high standards of quality embodied in the Head Start Program Performance Standards. As part of the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, we collected extensive data on the child care settings used by Early Head Start and control group families for their children at three ages (14, 24, and 36 months). This report describes the patterns of child care use by Early Head Start families and the impacts that program participation had on families’ child care use and the quality of care used. (author abstract)

    In 1994, the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers set forth a vision for Early Head Start programs in declaring that all child care settings used by Early Head Start families, whether or not the program provides the care directly, must meet the high standards of quality embodied in the Head Start Program Performance Standards. As part of the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, we collected extensive data on the child care settings used by Early Head Start and control group families for their children at three ages (14, 24, and 36 months). This report describes the patterns of child care use by Early Head Start families and the impacts that program participation had on families’ child care use and the quality of care used. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Castner, Laura; O'Reilly, Amy; Conway, Kevin; Bardos, Maura; Sama-Miller, Emily
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Over the last decade, several factors have come together and substantially affected the administration of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). For example, the number of participants rose from 17 million people in fiscal year 2000 to 40 million in fiscal year 2010. At the same time, state budget crises led to staff cuts and federal agencies have emphasized increasing access to SNAP and participation among eligible individuals, while also increasing accuracy, and have provided incentives for states who achieve this. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), with responsibility for overall administration of SNAP, has supported the states in these efforts by providing them with several policy options to better tailor the program to the states’ specific needs. At the same time, substantial growth has occurred in the acceptance and use of technology for accessing a wide range of services. States have responded to these factors by seeking out ways to improve the efficiency of their service delivery with fewer staff and without affecting...

    Over the last decade, several factors have come together and substantially affected the administration of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). For example, the number of participants rose from 17 million people in fiscal year 2000 to 40 million in fiscal year 2010. At the same time, state budget crises led to staff cuts and federal agencies have emphasized increasing access to SNAP and participation among eligible individuals, while also increasing accuracy, and have provided incentives for states who achieve this. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), with responsibility for overall administration of SNAP, has supported the states in these efforts by providing them with several policy options to better tailor the program to the states’ specific needs. At the same time, substantial growth has occurred in the acceptance and use of technology for accessing a wide range of services. States have responded to these factors by seeking out ways to improve the efficiency of their service delivery with fewer staff and without affecting accuracy—collectively referred to as modernization. Modernization initiatives can include the following types of activities: policy simplification, restructuring organizational and administrative functions, partnering with other organizations, and the use of technology. Major changes to any program do not always go smoothly, however. Without methodical introduction of the changes and careful monitoring of how well the initiatives are working to achieve the states’ goals, service delivery can be affected negatively. This report is an exploratory study intended to add to the growing body of knowledge about how states are modernizing their programs by focusing specifically on how they monitor and measure the success of discrete aspects of their initiatives. For example, when SNAP offices institute call centers to handle inquiries from participants, eliminating the need for participants to talk to a specific person who may not be available when they call, how does the state know if participants’ calls are getting through to the call center? Does the state know how many participants hang up because they were on hold for too long? Does it know if a participant has to call back repeatedly because the person who answered the phone could not answer a question? In this report, we present our findings on how states are measuring the performance of a specific set of modernization initiatives, which we selected in consultation with FNS. We discuss the range of measures, identify those most commonly used across sites, compare and contrast how the measures are defined across sites, and discuss standards and incentives associated with the measures. We also suggest a standard set of measures for each initiative that FNS and states could consider using to systematically track the performance of each initiative. (author abstract)

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