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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Blair, Kevin D.; Taylor, David B.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Only in the last few years have researchers begun to pay close attention to the child-only cases that fall under the provision of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Few attempts have been made to talk directly to kinship caregivers to understand their day-to-day lives. This triangulated study utilizes multiple strategies to assess the needs of child-only recipient caregivers in one northeast county. There are two distinct child-only recipient caregiving populations: (1) Caregivers who have been designated as disabled and who are receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments; and (2) those caregivers who are not receiving SSI payments. Results find that the two populations are distinct and require different kinds of services and treatment. Overall, however, both groups receive very little in the way of support from the county Department of Social Services (DSS). Essential to the success of these families will be the ability of DSS to recognize their unique needs and to provide the necessary case management services required to meet both the needs of...

    Only in the last few years have researchers begun to pay close attention to the child-only cases that fall under the provision of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Few attempts have been made to talk directly to kinship caregivers to understand their day-to-day lives. This triangulated study utilizes multiple strategies to assess the needs of child-only recipient caregivers in one northeast county. There are two distinct child-only recipient caregiving populations: (1) Caregivers who have been designated as disabled and who are receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments; and (2) those caregivers who are not receiving SSI payments. Results find that the two populations are distinct and require different kinds of services and treatment. Overall, however, both groups receive very little in the way of support from the county Department of Social Services (DSS). Essential to the success of these families will be the ability of DSS to recognize their unique needs and to provide the necessary case management services required to meet both the needs of the caregivers and the children in their care. Implications for practice, caseload administration and case management are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gibbs, Deborah; Kasten, Jennifer; Bir, Anupa; Duncan, Dean; Hoover, Sonja
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    The TANF program provides financial assistance to more than 500,000 children in relative care through child-only TANF grants, yet little information exists to describe this population. This study explored the service needs and well-being of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers, using secondary analysis of national survey data and case studies in five states. Secondary analyses suggested that these children compare favorably to children in kinship and foster care on many measures of well-being, but some indications of behavioral and mental health problems were seen. Case studies suggest that many children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers have extensive service needs. Taken together, these findings suggest advantages of relative caregiver arrangements for children in TANF child-only cases, as well as cause for concern. Relative care is generally believed to be preferable to foster care with nonrelatives when children cannot remain with parents. However, children often experience substantial difficulties as a result of their previous...

    The TANF program provides financial assistance to more than 500,000 children in relative care through child-only TANF grants, yet little information exists to describe this population. This study explored the service needs and well-being of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers, using secondary analysis of national survey data and case studies in five states. Secondary analyses suggested that these children compare favorably to children in kinship and foster care on many measures of well-being, but some indications of behavioral and mental health problems were seen. Case studies suggest that many children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers have extensive service needs. Taken together, these findings suggest advantages of relative caregiver arrangements for children in TANF child-only cases, as well as cause for concern. Relative care is generally believed to be preferable to foster care with nonrelatives when children cannot remain with parents. However, children often experience substantial difficulties as a result of their previous experiences and separation from parents, and the TANF system lacks the necessary resources to respond to them. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Farrell, Mary; Fishman, Michael; Laud, Stephanie; Allen, Vincena
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)of 1996, most families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) are subject to work requirements and time limits on benefit receipt.  However, one portion of the TANF caseload, cases where only a child or children are receiving assistance, are generally exempt from these federal requirements.  These "child-only" cases are not currently growing in absolute numbers but are becoming an increasing proportion of the overall TANF caseload.  In 1998, child-only cases made up 23 percent of the TANF caseload nationally, ranging from 10 percent to 47 percent of state caseloads.  This has led to increasing interest in understanding the characteristics of child-only cases and the program services they receive.

    A variety of circumstances result in child-only cases.  In some cases, the child is not living with a parent, but with a relative, who chooses not to be included in the assistance unit or whose income and assets preclude him or her from receiving cash assistance.  In other situations...

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)of 1996, most families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) are subject to work requirements and time limits on benefit receipt.  However, one portion of the TANF caseload, cases where only a child or children are receiving assistance, are generally exempt from these federal requirements.  These "child-only" cases are not currently growing in absolute numbers but are becoming an increasing proportion of the overall TANF caseload.  In 1998, child-only cases made up 23 percent of the TANF caseload nationally, ranging from 10 percent to 47 percent of state caseloads.  This has led to increasing interest in understanding the characteristics of child-only cases and the program services they receive.

    A variety of circumstances result in child-only cases.  In some cases, the child is not living with a parent, but with a relative, who chooses not to be included in the assistance unit or whose income and assets preclude him or her from receiving cash assistance.  In other situations, the child is living with a parent, but the parent is a Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipient, a non-qualified alien, a qualified alien who entered the country after August 1996, a sanctioned adult, or otherwise excluded.

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) contracted with The Lewin Group to obtain more information about the characteristics and trends of the child-only population.  This report describes how federal and state policies affect child-only caseloads, discusses the national TANF and child-only caseload trends, and examines the characteristics of child-only cases.  For a more in-depth review, The Lewin Group focused on three states — California, Florida, and Missouri — interviewing state and county officials and staff, conducting case file reviews in one county in each state, and analyzing administrative data. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gibbs, Deborah; Kasten, Jennifer; Bir, Anupa; Hoover, Sonja; Duncan, Dean; Mitchell, Janet
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    Since the establishment of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, much attention has been given to reductions in the number of welfare cases. Welfare cases declined nationally by 52 percent between 1996 and 2001; however, child-only cases declined by much less. Thus, while the number of child-only cases has fluctuated over time, their proportionate share of the TANF caseload has increased. Children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers occupy uncertain territory between the TANF and the child welfare service systems. Since these children are exempt from work requirements and not expected to move to self-sufficiency prior to adulthood, they are not well aligned with the TANF agency’s expectations and service offerings. Because they have not been identified as having experienced maltreatment, they are outside the child welfare system’s protective mandate, although they may be in need of supportive services. (author abstract)

    Since the establishment of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, much attention has been given to reductions in the number of welfare cases. Welfare cases declined nationally by 52 percent between 1996 and 2001; however, child-only cases declined by much less. Thus, while the number of child-only cases has fluctuated over time, their proportionate share of the TANF caseload has increased. Children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers occupy uncertain territory between the TANF and the child welfare service systems. Since these children are exempt from work requirements and not expected to move to self-sufficiency prior to adulthood, they are not well aligned with the TANF agency’s expectations and service offerings. Because they have not been identified as having experienced maltreatment, they are outside the child welfare system’s protective mandate, although they may be in need of supportive services. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Minkler, Meredith; Duerr Berrick, Jill; Needell, Barbara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

    Debate over the potential impacts of welfare reform largely has ignored the implications of these changes for the growing number of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Results of a qualitative study involving 36 key informants who were intimately involved in the crafting and/or implementation of California's welfare reform plan are presented. Particular attention is focused on time limits on aid, work requirements, and sanctions regarding teenage parenthood as these may impact on grandparent caregivers and their families. Cross-cutting themes also are presented. A case is made for greatly stepping up data collection and evaluative research that may help in determining the actual impacts of the legislation on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.(author abstract)

    This resource was previously published as a working paper by the Public Policy Institute of California.

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