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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Braun, R. Anton ; Kopecky, Karen A.; Koreshkova, Tatyana
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Poor heath, large acute and long-term care medical expenses, and spousal death are significant drivers of impoverishment among retirees. We document these facts and build a rich, overlapping generations model that reproduces them. We use the model to assess the incentive and welfare effects of Social Security and means-tested social insurance programs such as Medicaid and food stamp programs, for the aged. We find that U.S. means-tested social insurance programs for retirees provide significant welfare benefits for all newborn. Moreover, when means-tested social insurance benefits are of the scale in the United States, all individuals would prefer to be born into an economy with no Social Security. Finally, we find that the benefits of increasing means-tested social insurance are small or negative, if we hold fixed Social Security contributions and benefits at their current levels. (Author abstract)

    Poor heath, large acute and long-term care medical expenses, and spousal death are significant drivers of impoverishment among retirees. We document these facts and build a rich, overlapping generations model that reproduces them. We use the model to assess the incentive and welfare effects of Social Security and means-tested social insurance programs such as Medicaid and food stamp programs, for the aged. We find that U.S. means-tested social insurance programs for retirees provide significant welfare benefits for all newborn. Moreover, when means-tested social insurance benefits are of the scale in the United States, all individuals would prefer to be born into an economy with no Social Security. Finally, we find that the benefits of increasing means-tested social insurance are small or negative, if we hold fixed Social Security contributions and benefits at their current levels. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hickey, Robert
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    As transit systems expand and deliver improved connectivity, demand for housing within walking distance of transit stops is expected to grow, leading to higher rents and home prices that may price existing and prospective lower income households out of these neighborhoods. This paper examines the potential role of community land trusts (CLTs) to help address these concerns and ensure that transit-oriented development (TOD) is affordable to lower income households over the long term. Using case studies of CLTs engaged in TOD efforts in Atlanta, Denver, and the Twin Cities, this paper explores the opportunities, challenges, and supports that exist for CLTs eyeing future TOD endeavors. (author abstract)

    As transit systems expand and deliver improved connectivity, demand for housing within walking distance of transit stops is expected to grow, leading to higher rents and home prices that may price existing and prospective lower income households out of these neighborhoods. This paper examines the potential role of community land trusts (CLTs) to help address these concerns and ensure that transit-oriented development (TOD) is affordable to lower income households over the long term. Using case studies of CLTs engaged in TOD efforts in Atlanta, Denver, and the Twin Cities, this paper explores the opportunities, challenges, and supports that exist for CLTs eyeing future TOD endeavors. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hoxby, Caroline; Turner, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Only a minority of high-achieving, low-income students apply to colleges in the same way that other high-achieving students do: applying to several selective colleges whose curriculum is designed for students with a level of achievement like their own. This is despite the fact that selective colleges typically cost them high-achieving, low-income students less while offering them more generous resources than the non-selective postsecondary institutions they mainly attend. In previous work, we demonstrate that the vast majority of high-achieving, low-income students are unlikely to be reached by traditional methods of informing students about their college opportunities since such methods require the students to be concentrated geographically. In this study, we use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate interventions that provide students with semi-customized information on the application process and colleges' net costs. The interventions also provide students with no-paperwork application fee waivers. The ECO Comprehensive (ECO-C) Intervention costs about $6 per student, and...

    Only a minority of high-achieving, low-income students apply to colleges in the same way that other high-achieving students do: applying to several selective colleges whose curriculum is designed for students with a level of achievement like their own. This is despite the fact that selective colleges typically cost them high-achieving, low-income students less while offering them more generous resources than the non-selective postsecondary institutions they mainly attend. In previous work, we demonstrate that the vast majority of high-achieving, low-income students are unlikely to be reached by traditional methods of informing students about their college opportunities since such methods require the students to be concentrated geographically. In this study, we use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate interventions that provide students with semi-customized information on the application process and colleges' net costs. The interventions also provide students with no-paperwork application fee waivers. The ECO Comprehensive (ECO-C) Intervention costs about $6 per student, and we find that it causes high-achieving, low-income students to apply and be admitted to more colleges, especially those with high graduation rates and generous instructional resources. The students respond to their enlarged opportunity sets by enrolling in colleges that have stronger academic records, higher graduation rates, and more generous resources. Their freshman grades are as good as the control students', despite the fact that the control students attend less selective colleges and therefore compete with peers whose incoming preparation is substantially inferior. Benefit-to-cost ratios for the ECO-C Intervention are extremely high, even under the most conservative assumptions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Collins, Ann M.; Briefel, Ronette; Klerman, Jacob A.; Bell, Stephen; Bellotti, Jeanne; Logan, Christopher W.; Gordon, Anne; Wolfe, Anne; Rowe, Gretchen; McLaughlin, Steven M.; Enver, Ayesha; Fernandes, Meena; Wolfson, Carrie; Komarovsky, Marina; Cabili, Charlotte; Owens, Cheryl
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    Children’s development, health, and well-being depend on access to a safe and secure source of food. In 2010, 8.0 million households with children were food insecure (one in five such households) and nearly half of these, 3.9 million, included children who were food insecure at times during the year (Coleman-Jensen et al., 2011). Nearly 8.5 million children lived in households with food-insecure children, and 1.0 million children lived in households with very low food security among children (VLFS-C).

    To address needs in the summer, when school is out of session, the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals and snacks to children who receive the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) or the School Breakfast Program (SBP) during the school year. The SFSP enriches the lives of millions of low-income children in communities across the U.S., however, it reaches far fewer children than the school programs (FNS 2011a; Gordon and Briefel, 2003; Food Research and Action Center, 2011). Many communities also provide other types of food assistance and child programs during the...

    Children’s development, health, and well-being depend on access to a safe and secure source of food. In 2010, 8.0 million households with children were food insecure (one in five such households) and nearly half of these, 3.9 million, included children who were food insecure at times during the year (Coleman-Jensen et al., 2011). Nearly 8.5 million children lived in households with food-insecure children, and 1.0 million children lived in households with very low food security among children (VLFS-C).

    To address needs in the summer, when school is out of session, the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals and snacks to children who receive the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) or the School Breakfast Program (SBP) during the school year. The SFSP enriches the lives of millions of low-income children in communities across the U.S., however, it reaches far fewer children than the school programs (FNS 2011a; Gordon and Briefel, 2003; Food Research and Action Center, 2011). Many communities also provide other types of food assistance and child programs during the summer months to meet the nutritional needs of low-income children. Locations and resources are limited, though, so there are still gaps in many communities.

    As part of its efforts to end child hunger, the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is studying alternative approaches to providing food assistance to children in the summer months. The 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-80) authorized and provided funding for USDA to implement and rigorously evaluate the Summer Food for Children Demonstration, one component of which is the Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children (SEBTC). FNS contracted with Abt Associates, Mathematica Policy Research, and Maximus to study how the demonstration program has unfolded over time and its impact on program participants. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Holzer, Harry J.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore; Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and poor health impose on the economy. Then we aggregate all of these average costs per poor child across the total number of children growing up in poverty in the United States to obtain our estimate of the aggregate costs of the conditions associated with childhood poverty to the US economy. Our results suggest that these costs total about $500 billion per year, or the equivalent of nearly 4% of gross domestic product (GDP). More specifically, we estimate that childhood poverty each year: (1) reduces productivity and economic output by an amount equal to 1.3% of GDP, (2) raises the costs of crime by 1.3% of GDP, and (3) raises health expenditures and reduces the value of health by 1.2% of GDP. (author abstract)

    ...

    This paper attempts to estimate the aggregate annual costs of child poverty to the US economy. It begins with a review of rigorous research studies that estimate the statistical association between children growing up in poverty and their earnings, propensity to commit crime, and quality of health later in life. We also review estimates of the costs that crime and poor health impose on the economy. Then we aggregate all of these average costs per poor child across the total number of children growing up in poverty in the United States to obtain our estimate of the aggregate costs of the conditions associated with childhood poverty to the US economy. Our results suggest that these costs total about $500 billion per year, or the equivalent of nearly 4% of gross domestic product (GDP). More specifically, we estimate that childhood poverty each year: (1) reduces productivity and economic output by an amount equal to 1.3% of GDP, (2) raises the costs of crime by 1.3% of GDP, and (3) raises health expenditures and reduces the value of health by 1.2% of GDP. (author abstract)

    This resource is based on a working paper previously published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

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