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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Garfinkel, Irwin; Heintze, Theresa; Huang, Chien-Chung
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2001

    Public enforcement of private child support obligations transfers income from nonresident parents to resident parents (mostly mothers) or, if the mother is receiving welfare, to the state. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing literature on the effects of this transfer of income and presents new empirical evidence on the effects of stronger enforcement on the incomes of mothers and their children. Findings show that more stringent child support enforcement increases the labor supply of mothers who would otherwise have been on welfare, increases slightly or has no effect on the labor supply of nonresident fathers, decreases divorce and non-marital births, and decreases remarriages of both mothers and fathers. Empirical estimates indicate that stronger child support enforcement increases the income of single mothers and their dependent children by two dollars for each dollar of child support received by single mothers. This implies that the dominant effect of additional child support is to encourage welfare participant single mothers to leave welfare and enter the labor...

    Public enforcement of private child support obligations transfers income from nonresident parents to resident parents (mostly mothers) or, if the mother is receiving welfare, to the state. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing literature on the effects of this transfer of income and presents new empirical evidence on the effects of stronger enforcement on the incomes of mothers and their children. Findings show that more stringent child support enforcement increases the labor supply of mothers who would otherwise have been on welfare, increases slightly or has no effect on the labor supply of nonresident fathers, decreases divorce and non-marital births, and decreases remarriages of both mothers and fathers. Empirical estimates indicate that stronger child support enforcement increases the income of single mothers and their dependent children by two dollars for each dollar of child support received by single mothers. This implies that the dominant effect of additional child support is to encourage welfare participant single mothers to leave welfare and enter the labor market. This suggests that child support enforcement, in terms of breadth of legislation and administrative expenditures, has an impact on the income of eligible women. (Contains 53 references.) (Eric.gov-SM) (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schneider, Jo Anne
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2006

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Duran, Le'Ann; Plotkin, Martha; Potter, Phoebe; Rosen, Henry
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2013

    Employment providers are already serving large numbers of individuals released from correctional facilities or who are required to find jobs as conditions of their probation or parole. Yet the corrections, reentry, and workforce development fields have lacked an integrated tool that draws on the best thinking about reducing recidivism and improving job placement and retention to guide correctional supervision and the provision of community-based services. To address this gap, this white paper presents a tool that draws on evidence-based criminal justice practices and promising strategies for connecting hard-to-employ people to work. It calls for program design and practices to be tailored for adults with criminal histories based on their levels of risk for future criminal activity. (author abstract)

    Employment providers are already serving large numbers of individuals released from correctional facilities or who are required to find jobs as conditions of their probation or parole. Yet the corrections, reentry, and workforce development fields have lacked an integrated tool that draws on the best thinking about reducing recidivism and improving job placement and retention to guide correctional supervision and the provision of community-based services. To address this gap, this white paper presents a tool that draws on evidence-based criminal justice practices and promising strategies for connecting hard-to-employ people to work. It calls for program design and practices to be tailored for adults with criminal histories based on their levels of risk for future criminal activity. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Carey, Camille; Solomon, Robert A.
    Year: 2014

    Domestic violence victims often face the impossible choice between physical safety and financial security. State intervention can offer some protection to victims, but enlisting the criminal justice system through reporting domestic violence or restraining order violations can have drastic financial consequences. Involving the state is likely to lead to sanctions for the abuser which would ultimately deprive the victim of child support, alimony, and other financial support, which may be the totality of the victim’s financial resources. To avoid this result, many victims refuse to enforce court orders intended to maximize their safety. This article examines the context in which victims must “choose” between physical safety and financial security and the lawyer’s difficult position when a client prioritizes financial stability. Using a compelling case study that exemplifies this impossible choice, the article examines the role of economic dependence in victim decision-making; reasons why victims avoid protections offered by the criminal justice system; issues of capacity,...

    Domestic violence victims often face the impossible choice between physical safety and financial security. State intervention can offer some protection to victims, but enlisting the criminal justice system through reporting domestic violence or restraining order violations can have drastic financial consequences. Involving the state is likely to lead to sanctions for the abuser which would ultimately deprive the victim of child support, alimony, and other financial support, which may be the totality of the victim’s financial resources. To avoid this result, many victims refuse to enforce court orders intended to maximize their safety. This article examines the context in which victims must “choose” between physical safety and financial security and the lawyer’s difficult position when a client prioritizes financial stability. Using a compelling case study that exemplifies this impossible choice, the article examines the role of economic dependence in victim decision-making; reasons why victims avoid protections offered by the criminal justice system; issues of capacity, competence, and the Rules of Professional Responsibility in representing victims; the different models of client-centered lawyering and cause lawyering; and recent social science work on the ability to predict future domestic violence based on current behavior. The authors view this through the lens of law school clinical programs, and the experiences of students who work on the cases and what limitations, if any, there are to clinical representation when the client trades safety for economic stability. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Babcock, Elisabeth D.
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2014

    Moving out of poverty is no longer a short process of following a simple roadmap to a good job. It has become a lengthy, complex navigational challenge requiring individuals to rely on strong executive function (EF) skills (impulse control, working memory, and mental flexibility) in order to effectively manage life’s competing demands and optimize their decisions over many years. Experiences of social bias, persistent poverty, and trauma can directly undermine brain development and the EF skills most needed for success. The specific EF challenges in managing thoughts, behavior, and health caused by such adverse experiences are increasingly well understood, and this understanding may be used to improve policy and program design.

    The areas of the brain affected by adverse experiences of social bias, persistent poverty, and trauma remain plastic well into adulthood and, through proper coaching, may be strengthened and improved. Improvements in executive functioning are likely to positively impact outcomes in all areas of life, including parenting, personal relationships,...

    Moving out of poverty is no longer a short process of following a simple roadmap to a good job. It has become a lengthy, complex navigational challenge requiring individuals to rely on strong executive function (EF) skills (impulse control, working memory, and mental flexibility) in order to effectively manage life’s competing demands and optimize their decisions over many years. Experiences of social bias, persistent poverty, and trauma can directly undermine brain development and the EF skills most needed for success. The specific EF challenges in managing thoughts, behavior, and health caused by such adverse experiences are increasingly well understood, and this understanding may be used to improve policy and program design.

    The areas of the brain affected by adverse experiences of social bias, persistent poverty, and trauma remain plastic well into adulthood and, through proper coaching, may be strengthened and improved. Improvements in executive functioning are likely to positively impact outcomes in all areas of life, including parenting, personal relationships, money management, educational attainment, and career success. Policy makers and program leaders should attempt to use new learning from brain science to strengthen policy and program design targeting those impacted by social bias, persistent poverty, and trauma and to create frameworks and coaching approaches to augment and improve executive functioning. Based on early learning from brain science and its application to programs at Crittenton Women’s Union (CWU), this white paper offers recommendations on ways this science may be used to improve policy and program design and participant outcomes. (author introduction)

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