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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Committee for Economic Development Research and Policy Committee
    Reference Type: Report, White Papers
    Year: 2000

    The signing of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996 fundamentally changed the welfare system in America. The emphasis shifted from supporting low-income people who do not work to helping low-income people work to support themselves. This report examines the record of welfare reform in the wider context of the low-skill labor market. It asks how former welfare recipients have fared in finding employment, reducing dependency, and raising incomes. Recommendations are made for completing and improving the program for moving individuals from welfare to work. (author abstract)

    The signing of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996 fundamentally changed the welfare system in America. The emphasis shifted from supporting low-income people who do not work to helping low-income people work to support themselves. This report examines the record of welfare reform in the wider context of the low-skill labor market. It asks how former welfare recipients have fared in finding employment, reducing dependency, and raising incomes. Recommendations are made for completing and improving the program for moving individuals from welfare to work. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Chaudry, Ajay; Henly, Julia; Meyers, Marcia
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2010

    This working paper is one in a series of projects initiated by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to improve knowledge for child care researchers and policy makers about parental child care decision making. In this paper, we identify three distinct conceptual frameworks for understanding child care decisions – a rational consumer choice framework, a heuristics and biases framework, and a social network framework – and review the major assumptions, contributions, and possible limitations of each of these frameworks. We then discuss an integrated conceptual model, the accommodation model that draws from each of these frameworks. The first three frameworks come primarily from the fields of economics, psychology, and sociology, respectively. It is our sense that most research about child care decision making has been informed by the theories, assumptions, and empirical methods of one or more of these frameworks, either explicitly or implicitly, and we provide some examples and elaborate the basic tenets of each framework. The integrative accommodation model was first...

    This working paper is one in a series of projects initiated by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to improve knowledge for child care researchers and policy makers about parental child care decision making. In this paper, we identify three distinct conceptual frameworks for understanding child care decisions – a rational consumer choice framework, a heuristics and biases framework, and a social network framework – and review the major assumptions, contributions, and possible limitations of each of these frameworks. We then discuss an integrated conceptual model, the accommodation model that draws from each of these frameworks. The first three frameworks come primarily from the fields of economics, psychology, and sociology, respectively. It is our sense that most research about child care decision making has been informed by the theories, assumptions, and empirical methods of one or more of these frameworks, either explicitly or implicitly, and we provide some examples and elaborate the basic tenets of each framework. The integrative accommodation model was first presented by Marcia Meyers and Lucy Jordan (2006). We develop and elaborate this model more fully here with explicit attention to its relation to the rational consumer choice framework, the heuristics and biases framework, and the social network frameworks. These frameworks are presented as complementary, rather than mutually exclusive. For a process as complex as parental child care decisions, each can provide a different and useful lens through which to understand unique aspects of the factors, processes and outcomes of parental child care decisions. When considered together, we believe they may inform one another and the development of more integrative models, such as the accommodation model presented here. It is our hope that researchers working primarily within one of the conceptual frameworks discussed here will benefit from learning about other frameworks. In some cases, this may simply suggest additional or new variables to consider when specifying a particular model, while still working from the same conceptual framework. In other cases, it may result in integrative approaches that address multiple dimensions of the decision making process – dimensions that may not be as obvious when working within a single framework. In the concluding section we discuss some of the issues and the implications for future research. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nieves-Rosa, Limarie; Thomas-Breitfeld, Sean
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2002

    On June 26, 2002, the Senate Finance Committee approved a bill to reauthorize the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant by a margin of 13 to eight. The Committee’s “Work, Opportunity, and Responsibility for Kids Act of 2002” (WORK) was modeled on the proposals of Senators Hatch (R-UT), Snowe (R-ME), Jeffords (I-VT), Breaux (D-LA),Lincoln (D-AR), and Rockefeller (D-WV).This bill is similar in several aspects to the measure passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on May 16, 2002, the “Personal Responsibility, Work, and Family Promotion Act of 2002” (H.R. 4737). Both bills continue the five-year lifetime limit on receipt of benefits, require more work from recipients, and focus on universal engagement, which requires that all TANF recipients have an Individual Responsibility Plan that outlines the activities and supports that will move the parent into the workforce. However, the WORK Act is far better than the bill passed by the House because it gives states the flexibility to serve legal immigrants, expands access to education and training, and increases...

    On June 26, 2002, the Senate Finance Committee approved a bill to reauthorize the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant by a margin of 13 to eight. The Committee’s “Work, Opportunity, and Responsibility for Kids Act of 2002” (WORK) was modeled on the proposals of Senators Hatch (R-UT), Snowe (R-ME), Jeffords (I-VT), Breaux (D-LA),Lincoln (D-AR), and Rockefeller (D-WV).This bill is similar in several aspects to the measure passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on May 16, 2002, the “Personal Responsibility, Work, and Family Promotion Act of 2002” (H.R. 4737). Both bills continue the five-year lifetime limit on receipt of benefits, require more work from recipients, and focus on universal engagement, which requires that all TANF recipients have an Individual Responsibility Plan that outlines the activities and supports that will move the parent into the workforce. However, the WORK Act is far better than the bill passed by the House because it gives states the flexibility to serve legal immigrants, expands access to education and training, and increases funding for child care. In addition, the WORK Act includes two provisions that directly relate to Puerto Rico, whereas the House bill did not address the disparities in funds assigned to Puerto Rico’s TANF program. The Finance Committee’s bill is expected to go to the floor of the Senate in the coming weeks. This White Paper highlights recent developments in the TANF reauthorization process in Congress and analyzes their implications for Puerto Rico. It provides information on the experience of Puerto Rico with the implementation of welfare reform during the past five years and provides important recommendations for the Senate to consider as it makes its final decision about TANF reauthorization. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Garfinkel, Irwin; Heintze, Theresa; Huang, Chien-Chung
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2001

    Public enforcement of private child support obligations transfers income from nonresident parents to resident parents (mostly mothers) or, if the mother is receiving welfare, to the state. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing literature on the effects of this transfer of income and presents new empirical evidence on the effects of stronger enforcement on the incomes of mothers and their children. Findings show that more stringent child support enforcement increases the labor supply of mothers who would otherwise have been on welfare, increases slightly or has no effect on the labor supply of nonresident fathers, decreases divorce and non-marital births, and decreases remarriages of both mothers and fathers. Empirical estimates indicate that stronger child support enforcement increases the income of single mothers and their dependent children by two dollars for each dollar of child support received by single mothers. This implies that the dominant effect of additional child support is to encourage welfare participant single mothers to leave welfare and enter the labor...

    Public enforcement of private child support obligations transfers income from nonresident parents to resident parents (mostly mothers) or, if the mother is receiving welfare, to the state. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing literature on the effects of this transfer of income and presents new empirical evidence on the effects of stronger enforcement on the incomes of mothers and their children. Findings show that more stringent child support enforcement increases the labor supply of mothers who would otherwise have been on welfare, increases slightly or has no effect on the labor supply of nonresident fathers, decreases divorce and non-marital births, and decreases remarriages of both mothers and fathers. Empirical estimates indicate that stronger child support enforcement increases the income of single mothers and their dependent children by two dollars for each dollar of child support received by single mothers. This implies that the dominant effect of additional child support is to encourage welfare participant single mothers to leave welfare and enter the labor market. This suggests that child support enforcement, in terms of breadth of legislation and administrative expenditures, has an impact on the income of eligible women. (Contains 53 references.) (Eric.gov-SM) (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schneider, Jo Anne
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2006

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

    This paper provides a succinct overview of the concept of social capital and describes ways in which social capital can play a role in economic and community development. Examples illustrating these concepts are drawn from more than 20 years of research in urban communities, as well as from case studies produced by others involved with community development. The paper addresses the following questions:
    1) What is social capital, and how do the various kinds of social capital play out in the ways that community needs are met?
    2) What kinds of social capital building strategies are useful in economic and community development?

    (Author abstract)

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