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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Foster, Diana Greene; Biggs, M. Antonia; Raifman, Sarah; Gipson, Jessica; Kimport, Katrina; Rocca, Corinne H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Importance  Evidence indicates that there are potential health, development, and maternal bonding consequences for children born from unwanted pregnancies.

    Objective  To examine the association of women receiving or being denied a wanted abortion with their children’s health and well-being.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  A 5-year longitudinal observational study with a quasi-experimental design conducted between January 18, 2008, and January 25, 2016, examined women who received abortions just under the gestational age limit of 30 abortion facilities across the United States and women who were denied abortion just beyond the gestational age limit in these facilities. Analyses compared the children of 146 women who were denied an abortion (index children) with children born to 182 women who received an abortion and had a subsequent child within 5 years (subsequent children). Interview-to-interview retention averaged 94.5% (6895 of 7293) across the 11 semi-annual interviews.

    Exposures  ...

    Importance  Evidence indicates that there are potential health, development, and maternal bonding consequences for children born from unwanted pregnancies.

    Objective  To examine the association of women receiving or being denied a wanted abortion with their children’s health and well-being.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  A 5-year longitudinal observational study with a quasi-experimental design conducted between January 18, 2008, and January 25, 2016, examined women who received abortions just under the gestational age limit of 30 abortion facilities across the United States and women who were denied abortion just beyond the gestational age limit in these facilities. Analyses compared the children of 146 women who were denied an abortion (index children) with children born to 182 women who received an abortion and had a subsequent child within 5 years (subsequent children). Interview-to-interview retention averaged 94.5% (6895 of 7293) across the 11 semi-annual interviews.

    Exposures  Being born after denial of abortion vs after a new pregnancy subsequent to an abortion.Main Outcomes and Measures  Perinatal outcomes and child health, child development, maternal bonding, socioeconomics, and household structure.

    Results  This study included 328 women who had children during the study period (mean [SD] age at study recruitment, 23.7 [4.9] years). There were no differences by study group in consent to participate in the study, completion of first interview, or continuation in the study. Among the 328 children in the study (146 index children and 182 subsequent children), there were 163 girls and 165 boys. Perinatal and child health outcomes were not different between subsequent and index children, and there was no clear pattern of delayed child development. However, mixed-effects models adjusting for clustered recruitment and multiple observations per child revealed that poor maternal bonding was more common for index children compared with subsequent children (9% vs 3%; adjusted odds ratio, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.48-17.85). Index children lived in households with lower incomes relative to the federal poverty level than did subsequent children (101% vs 132% of federal poverty level; adjusted regression coefficient, –0.31; 95% CI, –0.52 to –0.10), and were more likely to live in households without enough money to pay for basic living expenses (72% vs 55%; adjusted odds ratio, 5.16; 95% CI, 2.34-11.40).

    Conclusions and Relevance  These findings suggest that access to abortion enables women to choose to have children at a time when they have more financial and emotional resources to devote to their children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Anderson, Timothy J.; Saman, Daniel M.; Lipsky, Martin S.; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Background:

    By examining 2013 County Health Rankings and Roadmaps data from the University of Wisconsin and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, this paper seeks to add to the available literature on health variances between United States residents living in rural and non-rural areas. We believe this is the first study to use the Rankings data to measure rural and urban health differences across the United States and therefore highlights the national need to address shortfalls in rural healthcare and overall health. The data indicates that U.S. residents living in rural counties are generally in poorer health than their urban counterparts.

    Methods:

    We used 2013 County Health Rankings data to evaluate differences across the six domains of interest (mortality, morbidity, health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment) for rural and non-rural U.S. counties. This is a cross-sectional study employing chi-square analysis and logit regression.

    Results:

    We found...

    Background:

    By examining 2013 County Health Rankings and Roadmaps data from the University of Wisconsin and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, this paper seeks to add to the available literature on health variances between United States residents living in rural and non-rural areas. We believe this is the first study to use the Rankings data to measure rural and urban health differences across the United States and therefore highlights the national need to address shortfalls in rural healthcare and overall health. The data indicates that U.S. residents living in rural counties are generally in poorer health than their urban counterparts.

    Methods:

    We used 2013 County Health Rankings data to evaluate differences across the six domains of interest (mortality, morbidity, health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment) for rural and non-rural U.S. counties. This is a cross-sectional study employing chi-square analysis and logit regression.

    Results:

    We found that residents living in rural U.S. counties are more likely to have poorer health outcomes along a variety of measurements that comprise the County Health Rankings’ indexed domains of health quality. These populations have statistically significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower scores in such areas as health behavior, morbidity factors, clinical care, and the physical environment. We attribute the differences to a variety of factors including limitations in infrastructure, socioeconomic differences, insurance coverage deficiencies, and higher rates of traffic fatalities and accidents.

    Discussions:

    The largest differences between rural and non-rural counties were in the indexed domains of mortality and clinical care.

    Conclusions:

    Our analysis revealed differences in health outcomes in the County Health Rankings’ indexed domains between rural and non-rural U.S. counties. We also describe limitations and offer commentary on the need for more uniform measurements in the classification of the terms rural and non-rural. These results can influence practitioners and policy makers in guiding future research and when deciding on funding allocation. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morrissey, Taryn W.; Lekies, Kristi S.; Cochran, Moncrieff M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    This exploratory study examined the impacts of New York's Universal Pre-kindergarten (UPK) program as perceived by directors at child care centers and preschools not receiving state funds. Although only partially implemented, UPK's mixed-delivery system grants monies to a substantial number of qualifying community-based early care and education centers, resulting in a funding imbalance between participating and nonparticipating centers. Phone interviews were conducted with the directors of non-UPK programs across New York State (N = 46). Quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest perceived decreases in 4-year-old and total enrollment and increased teacher recruitment difficulty and competition for teachers since UPK was introduced. Larger centers and those offering full-day programming more often reported changes in teacher recruitment and retention than smaller centers and those offering part-day programming only. Implications for state pre-K policy are discussed. (Author abstract)

    This exploratory study examined the impacts of New York's Universal Pre-kindergarten (UPK) program as perceived by directors at child care centers and preschools not receiving state funds. Although only partially implemented, UPK's mixed-delivery system grants monies to a substantial number of qualifying community-based early care and education centers, resulting in a funding imbalance between participating and nonparticipating centers. Phone interviews were conducted with the directors of non-UPK programs across New York State (N = 46). Quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest perceived decreases in 4-year-old and total enrollment and increased teacher recruitment difficulty and competition for teachers since UPK was introduced. Larger centers and those offering full-day programming more often reported changes in teacher recruitment and retention than smaller centers and those offering part-day programming only. Implications for state pre-K policy are discussed. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    We study parental responses to child support obligations using rich administrative data from Denmark and variation in the child support formula. We estimate that a 1000 DKK ($160) increase in a father's obligation is associated with a 273 DKK ($45) increase in his payment. A higher obligation reduces father-child co-residence, pointing to substitution between financial and non-pecuniary investments. Further, obligations increase post-separation fertility among remarried fathers, but have no impacts on maternal fertility or either parent's labor supply. Our findings suggest that government efforts to increase child investments through mandates on parents can be complicated by their behavioral responses to them. (Author abstract)

    We study parental responses to child support obligations using rich administrative data from Denmark and variation in the child support formula. We estimate that a 1000 DKK ($160) increase in a father's obligation is associated with a 273 DKK ($45) increase in his payment. A higher obligation reduces father-child co-residence, pointing to substitution between financial and non-pecuniary investments. Further, obligations increase post-separation fertility among remarried fathers, but have no impacts on maternal fertility or either parent's labor supply. Our findings suggest that government efforts to increase child investments through mandates on parents can be complicated by their behavioral responses to them. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing...

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. (Author abstract)

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