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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children’s needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their...

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children’s needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women’s use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an ‘‘either/or’’ phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kia-Keating, Maryam; Nylund-Gibson, Karen ; Kia-Keating, Brett M. ; Schock, Christine ; Grimm, Ryan P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94...

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94). A gender effect was found whereby girls were more likely than boys to be in the high self-regulation class relative to the low at both waves. Using Latent Transition Analysis, distal outcomes were examined approximately 5 years after the initial assessment (mean age: 8.83, SD = .93). Children who sustained a higher level of self-regulation over time had the lowest internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Transition to low self-regulation at wave 2, regardless of initial self-regulation status, was related to greater severity of internalizing symptoms. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Campbell, Kevin; Baumohl, Jim; Hunt, Sharon R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program for drug addicts and alcoholics (DA&A beneficiaries) ended in January 1997 without any special effort to create employment for those who lost benefits. Relying on data from a nine-site, two-year panel study of 1,764 former DA &A recipients and detailed semistructured interviews with subsamples in four sites, this paper examines employment outcomes and barriers to employment among 611 respondents who lost SSI and did not replace it with another form of publicly funded income assistance. Despite the tight labor market of the late 1990s, this group was plagued by widespread unemployment and sub-employment. At the two-year follow-up, only 25% earned $500 per month or more, and only 12% typically earned this much throughout the study. Given their age, health problems and limited human capital, it is likely that many former DA&A beneficiaries will remain indigent, returning to the SSI rolls when they requalify upon turning 65.(author abstract)

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program for drug addicts and alcoholics (DA&A beneficiaries) ended in January 1997 without any special effort to create employment for those who lost benefits. Relying on data from a nine-site, two-year panel study of 1,764 former DA &A recipients and detailed semistructured interviews with subsamples in four sites, this paper examines employment outcomes and barriers to employment among 611 respondents who lost SSI and did not replace it with another form of publicly funded income assistance. Despite the tight labor market of the late 1990s, this group was plagued by widespread unemployment and sub-employment. At the two-year follow-up, only 25% earned $500 per month or more, and only 12% typically earned this much throughout the study. Given their age, health problems and limited human capital, it is likely that many former DA&A beneficiaries will remain indigent, returning to the SSI rolls when they requalify upon turning 65.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Odoms-Young, Angela
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    Until recently, researchers have focused most of their attention on psychosocial factors that contribute to obesity and related behaviors, such as diet and physical activity. However, there is increasing recognition of the important role that environmental factors play in these behaviors.

    Between 1980 and 2000, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity doubled, rising to 31% of U.S. adults, ages 20 to 74. Since then, the prevalence rate has continued to rise.4 Obesity is a major health concern among African Americans; the prevalence of obesity in African American women exceeds rates for all other racial, ethnic, and gender groups (for example, 54% of African American women are obese, compared with 30% of non-Hispanic white women). Nurses, too, find excess weight gain a common health challenge. (Author introduction)

    Until recently, researchers have focused most of their attention on psychosocial factors that contribute to obesity and related behaviors, such as diet and physical activity. However, there is increasing recognition of the important role that environmental factors play in these behaviors.

    Between 1980 and 2000, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity doubled, rising to 31% of U.S. adults, ages 20 to 74. Since then, the prevalence rate has continued to rise.4 Obesity is a major health concern among African Americans; the prevalence of obesity in African American women exceeds rates for all other racial, ethnic, and gender groups (for example, 54% of African American women are obese, compared with 30% of non-Hispanic white women). Nurses, too, find excess weight gain a common health challenge. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Mendenhall, Ruby
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Scholars are beginning to use the concept medicalization of poverty to theorize how the United States spends large amounts of money on illnesses related to poverty but invests much less in preventing these illnesses and the conditions that create them (e.g., economic insecurity, housing instability, continuous exposure to violence, and racism). This study examines the connection between poverty, disease burden and health-related costs through the in-depth interviews of 86 Black mothers living in neighborhoods with high levels of violence on the South Side of Chicago. The rippling costs of poverty and violence include 56 percent of the mothers reporting post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and 48 percent reporting mild to severe depressive symptoms. Mothers also report poor housing quality such as “toxic mold.” The physical costs include reports of back pains, stomach aches, hair falling out, panic attacks, hands shaking, insomnia (sometimes for two days), fainting from exhaustion and lack of sexual desire, and children with asthma and osteomyelitis reportedly from the exposure...

    Scholars are beginning to use the concept medicalization of poverty to theorize how the United States spends large amounts of money on illnesses related to poverty but invests much less in preventing these illnesses and the conditions that create them (e.g., economic insecurity, housing instability, continuous exposure to violence, and racism). This study examines the connection between poverty, disease burden and health-related costs through the in-depth interviews of 86 Black mothers living in neighborhoods with high levels of violence on the South Side of Chicago. The rippling costs of poverty and violence include 56 percent of the mothers reporting post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and 48 percent reporting mild to severe depressive symptoms. Mothers also report poor housing quality such as “toxic mold.” The physical costs include reports of back pains, stomach aches, hair falling out, panic attacks, hands shaking, insomnia (sometimes for two days), fainting from exhaustion and lack of sexual desire, and children with asthma and osteomyelitis reportedly from the exposure to mold. Transformative solutions are explored that build upon the cultural resources of Black mothers (e.g., women-centered networks, spirituality and collective-cooperatives) and engage policy levers (e.g., Earned Income Tax Credit and Tax Increment Financing). (Author abstract)

     

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