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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Arno, Peter S.; Sohler, Nancy; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public's health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health. (author abstract)

    The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public's health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meyer, Bruce D.; Rosenbaum, Dan T.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    During 1984-96 there were enormous changes in welfare and tax policy. In particular, there were large; expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Medicaid, changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent; Children (AFDC) program and related training and child care programs. Many of the program changes were intended to; encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the; employment of single mothers, particularly those with young children. In this paper, we first document these large; changes in policies and employment. We then examine if the policy changes are the reason for the large increases in; single mothers’ employment. We find evidence that a large share of the increase in work by single mothers can be; attributed to the EITC, with smaller shares for welfare benefit reductions, welfare waivers, changes in training programs,; and child care expansions. Our results also indicate that financial incentives through the tax and welfare systems have; substantial effects on single mothers’ employment decisions. (...

    During 1984-96 there were enormous changes in welfare and tax policy. In particular, there were large; expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Medicaid, changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent; Children (AFDC) program and related training and child care programs. Many of the program changes were intended to; encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the; employment of single mothers, particularly those with young children. In this paper, we first document these large; changes in policies and employment. We then examine if the policy changes are the reason for the large increases in; single mothers’ employment. We find evidence that a large share of the increase in work by single mothers can be; attributed to the EITC, with smaller shares for welfare benefit reductions, welfare waivers, changes in training programs,; and child care expansions. Our results also indicate that financial incentives through the tax and welfare systems have; substantial effects on single mothers’ employment decisions. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mendenhall, Ruby; Kramer, Karen Z.; Bellisle, Dylan
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Research on social mobility of low and moderate income families often uses objective measures and economic indicators of social mobility and quantitative research methods. In this paper we use a qualitative approach to understand how social mobility in terms of homeownership and desired neighborhood is pursued by 194 working families who received more than $1,000 in Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). Specifically, we use cumulative advantage and disadvantage theory to explore the pathways and threats families encounter in their attempts to achieve homeownership and residence in desired neighborhoods. We find that families use different strategies to achieve social mobility and that the most successful families follow multiple strategies that involve pathways used by more affluent families like savings and help from family and friends as well as using social and governmental program and rent-to-own agreements. We discuss the implication for families, social organizations, and policymakers. (Author abstract)

    Research on social mobility of low and moderate income families often uses objective measures and economic indicators of social mobility and quantitative research methods. In this paper we use a qualitative approach to understand how social mobility in terms of homeownership and desired neighborhood is pursued by 194 working families who received more than $1,000 in Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). Specifically, we use cumulative advantage and disadvantage theory to explore the pathways and threats families encounter in their attempts to achieve homeownership and residence in desired neighborhoods. We find that families use different strategies to achieve social mobility and that the most successful families follow multiple strategies that involve pathways used by more affluent families like savings and help from family and friends as well as using social and governmental program and rent-to-own agreements. We discuss the implication for families, social organizations, and policymakers. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Chaney, Cassandra
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Since the 1960s an increasing number of Black children are reared by poor unmarried parents on welfare. To reduce poverty, minimize welfare dependence, and provide a monetary incentive for low-income, unmarried parents to wed, the government established the earned income tax credit (EITC). Since its establishment in 1975, however, scholars know very little about whether this credit can increase Black marriage among low-income couples with children. To address this paucity, I support and extend Mayhew's (1980, 1981) micro-sociological and macro-sociological perspectives by highlighting the individual, interpersonal, and sociological factors that encourage or discourage Black marriage. I examined the qualitative responses of 17 Blacks between the ages of 23 and 61 years regarding whether they believed an increased child dependent tax credit (limited to married parents) would increase the number of married parent Black families. Qualitative analyses of the data revealed that although some participants were hopeful that the EITC could increase the number of Black marriages, most did...

    Since the 1960s an increasing number of Black children are reared by poor unmarried parents on welfare. To reduce poverty, minimize welfare dependence, and provide a monetary incentive for low-income, unmarried parents to wed, the government established the earned income tax credit (EITC). Since its establishment in 1975, however, scholars know very little about whether this credit can increase Black marriage among low-income couples with children. To address this paucity, I support and extend Mayhew's (1980, 1981) micro-sociological and macro-sociological perspectives by highlighting the individual, interpersonal, and sociological factors that encourage or discourage Black marriage. I examined the qualitative responses of 17 Blacks between the ages of 23 and 61 years regarding whether they believed an increased child dependent tax credit (limited to married parents) would increase the number of married parent Black families. Qualitative analyses of the data revealed that although some participants were hopeful that the EITC could increase the number of Black marriages, most did not believe the EITC would substantially increase the number of Black marriages because the credit fails to address the intrinsic value of marriage. Supporting qualitative data are presented in connection with each theme. Practical and policy implications for Black marriage are also discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000,  B = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-...

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000,  B = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, B = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, B = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. (Author abstract)

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