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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (n 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr...

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (n 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gibbs, Deborah; Kasten, Jennifer; Bir, Anupa; Duncan, Dean; Hoover, Sonja
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    The TANF program provides financial assistance to more than 500,000 children in relative care through child-only TANF grants, yet little information exists to describe this population. This study explored the service needs and well-being of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers, using secondary analysis of national survey data and case studies in five states. Secondary analyses suggested that these children compare favorably to children in kinship and foster care on many measures of well-being, but some indications of behavioral and mental health problems were seen. Case studies suggest that many children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers have extensive service needs. Taken together, these findings suggest advantages of relative caregiver arrangements for children in TANF child-only cases, as well as cause for concern. Relative care is generally believed to be preferable to foster care with nonrelatives when children cannot remain with parents. However, children often experience substantial difficulties as a result of their previous...

    The TANF program provides financial assistance to more than 500,000 children in relative care through child-only TANF grants, yet little information exists to describe this population. This study explored the service needs and well-being of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers, using secondary analysis of national survey data and case studies in five states. Secondary analyses suggested that these children compare favorably to children in kinship and foster care on many measures of well-being, but some indications of behavioral and mental health problems were seen. Case studies suggest that many children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers have extensive service needs. Taken together, these findings suggest advantages of relative caregiver arrangements for children in TANF child-only cases, as well as cause for concern. Relative care is generally believed to be preferable to foster care with nonrelatives when children cannot remain with parents. However, children often experience substantial difficulties as a result of their previous experiences and separation from parents, and the TANF system lacks the necessary resources to respond to them. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Finkel, Meryl; Lam, Ken
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The 1998 Quality Housing Work Responsibility Act (QHWRA) requires public housing agencies (PHAs) to offer the option of a flat rent (as opposed to an income-based rent) to residents of public housing. Flat rents are based on market rents and, therefore, the tenant rent does not vary with income. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) expected that by having the option of paying a flat rent, public housing residents would not be discouraged from working and increasing their income because their rent would not increase if their income increased. Similarly, QHWRA’s flat-rent option was also expected to avoid creating disincentives for continued residency by families that are attempting to become economically self-sufficient.

    HUD implemented the provision on flat rents in 1999. As of the end of 2005, about 105,000 families (of the more than 1.2 million public housing households) were identified on HUD’s data system as paying either flat rents or ceiling rents.

    This article uses extracts from HUD’s Office of Public and Indian Housing Information...

    The 1998 Quality Housing Work Responsibility Act (QHWRA) requires public housing agencies (PHAs) to offer the option of a flat rent (as opposed to an income-based rent) to residents of public housing. Flat rents are based on market rents and, therefore, the tenant rent does not vary with income. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) expected that by having the option of paying a flat rent, public housing residents would not be discouraged from working and increasing their income because their rent would not increase if their income increased. Similarly, QHWRA’s flat-rent option was also expected to avoid creating disincentives for continued residency by families that are attempting to become economically self-sufficient.

    HUD implemented the provision on flat rents in 1999. As of the end of 2005, about 105,000 families (of the more than 1.2 million public housing households) were identified on HUD’s data system as paying either flat rents or ceiling rents.

    This article uses extracts from HUD’s Office of Public and Indian Housing Information Center data system to provide some basic information on the use of flat rents in public housing, including the types of PHAs, places, and families that have selected a flat rent, and changes that have taken place in these properties and for these families coincident with the use of flat rents.

    The article shows that, although nearly all PHAs have at least some flat-rent units, the proportion of flat-rent units in each PHA is generally small. Households paying flat rents have much higher incomes compared with other public housing residents. Similarly, a much higher percentage of households paying flat rents reported that most of their income was from wages compared with other public housing households. Thus, flat rents appear to be succeeding in allowing residents in these units to increase their income through employment and to remain in their units even as their income increases. Rents in units where residents are paying flat rents are substantially higher than in other public housing units. At the same time, households paying flat rents are virtually always paying less than 30 percent of their income for rent. In other words, flat rents offer benefits to both the residents and the housing agencies. Residents pay less than they would under an income-based rent scenario and the PHAs receive a higher rent than they would from regular public housing tenants. Properties with flat-rent units have a higher degree of income mixing than other properties do. This finding is as expected because households in units with flat rents have higher incomes than most other public housing households do. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Butrica, Barbara; Smith, Karen E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Minority and divorced women have historically experienced double-digit poverty rates in retirement, and demographic trends will increase their representation in future retiree populations. We might expect an increase in the proportion of economically vulnerable divorced women in the future. Factors associated with higher retirement incomes include having a college degree; having strong labor force attachment; receiving Social Security benefits; and having pensions, retirement accounts, or assets, regardless of race and ethnicity. Because divorced minority women are less likely than divorced white women to have these attributes, their projected average retirement incomes are lower than those of divorced white women. (author abstract)

    Minority and divorced women have historically experienced double-digit poverty rates in retirement, and demographic trends will increase their representation in future retiree populations. We might expect an increase in the proportion of economically vulnerable divorced women in the future. Factors associated with higher retirement incomes include having a college degree; having strong labor force attachment; receiving Social Security benefits; and having pensions, retirement accounts, or assets, regardless of race and ethnicity. Because divorced minority women are less likely than divorced white women to have these attributes, their projected average retirement incomes are lower than those of divorced white women. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Butrica, Barbara; Smith, Karen E.; Iams, Howard
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    This article examines how retirement income is likely to change for boomers and persons born in generation X compared with current retirees. We use the MINT model to project retirement income, poverty rates, and replacement rates for current and future retirees at age 67. We find that retirement incomes will increase over time, and poverty rates will fall. Projected income gains are larger for higher than for lower socioeconomic groups, leading to increased income inequality among future retirees. Boomers and GenXers are less likely to have enough postretirement income to maintain their preretirement standard of living compared with current retirees. (author abstract)

    This article examines how retirement income is likely to change for boomers and persons born in generation X compared with current retirees. We use the MINT model to project retirement income, poverty rates, and replacement rates for current and future retirees at age 67. We find that retirement incomes will increase over time, and poverty rates will fall. Projected income gains are larger for higher than for lower socioeconomic groups, leading to increased income inequality among future retirees. Boomers and GenXers are less likely to have enough postretirement income to maintain their preretirement standard of living compared with current retirees. (author abstract)

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