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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Sanchez, Thomas W. ; Shen, Qing; Peng, Zhong-Ren
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    While policy-makers assert that increased public transit mobility can positively affect employment status for low-income persons, there is little empirical evidence to support this theory. It is generally assumed that public transit can effectively link unemployed, car-less, persons with appropriate job locations—hence the call for more public transit services to assist moving welfare recipients to gainful employment. Thus far, the available evidence is anecdotal, while general patterns of transit access in relationship to labour participation remain relatively unexplored. This analysis examines whether increased transit access is associated with the case status (employment status) of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients in the Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; and Portland, Oregon metropolitan areas. Individual TANF recipient location data, transit route/stop data and employment location data were used in limited dependent variable regression analyses to predict the employment status of TANF...

    While policy-makers assert that increased public transit mobility can positively affect employment status for low-income persons, there is little empirical evidence to support this theory. It is generally assumed that public transit can effectively link unemployed, car-less, persons with appropriate job locations—hence the call for more public transit services to assist moving welfare recipients to gainful employment. Thus far, the available evidence is anecdotal, while general patterns of transit access in relationship to labour participation remain relatively unexplored. This analysis examines whether increased transit access is associated with the case status (employment status) of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients in the Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; and Portland, Oregon metropolitan areas. Individual TANF recipient location data, transit route/stop data and employment location data were used in limited dependent variable regression analyses to predict the employment status of TANF recipients. The results of this analysis indicate that access to fixed-route transit and employment concentrations had virtually no association with the employment outcomes of TANF recipients in the six selected metropolitan areas. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Grieb, Suzanne M. Dolwick; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    The association between housing and HIV has been widely demonstrated, although inquiry into HIV testing has been largely limited to the homeless. This study examines correlates of HIV testing within the past 6 months with housing stability and residential transience (moving two or more times in the past 6 months) among 620 low-income urban African Americans. Unstably housed and transient participants were more likely to participate in high-risk sex behaviors than stably housed participants and non-transient participants, respectively. In multivariate analyses, residential transience was positively associated with recent HIV testing; however, persons unstably housed were not more likely to have recently been tested for HIV despite their increased vulnerability and risk. While structural interventions are necessary to address the HIV disparities related to housing, increased community-based and mobile testing centers may be able to improve access to HIV testing among unstably housed. (Author abstract)

    The association between housing and HIV has been widely demonstrated, although inquiry into HIV testing has been largely limited to the homeless. This study examines correlates of HIV testing within the past 6 months with housing stability and residential transience (moving two or more times in the past 6 months) among 620 low-income urban African Americans. Unstably housed and transient participants were more likely to participate in high-risk sex behaviors than stably housed participants and non-transient participants, respectively. In multivariate analyses, residential transience was positively associated with recent HIV testing; however, persons unstably housed were not more likely to have recently been tested for HIV despite their increased vulnerability and risk. While structural interventions are necessary to address the HIV disparities related to housing, increased community-based and mobile testing centers may be able to improve access to HIV testing among unstably housed. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) Program, undertaken in five metropolitan areas (MSAs)during 1994-1998, has produced the only evidence about the effects of neighborhood conditions on social outcomes which is based upon experimental observation. The results of this experiment provide no support at all for a link between neighborhood conditions and the economic self sufficiency of adults. This contrasts sharply with a prior body of social science evidence suggesting that the spatial segregation of minority workers from concentrations of urban employment leads to reduced earnings, employment, and minority welfare. We assess the importance of the experimental findings. To establish a prior about the expected effects of the experimental treatments in these five MSAs, we estimate a simple statistical model of the effects of spatial isolation from job concentrations on the employment levels of black workers. We then analyze whether the experiment could have reasonably been expected to detect effects of this magnitude. We conclude that the experimental treatment observed ex post – a...

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) Program, undertaken in five metropolitan areas (MSAs)during 1994-1998, has produced the only evidence about the effects of neighborhood conditions on social outcomes which is based upon experimental observation. The results of this experiment provide no support at all for a link between neighborhood conditions and the economic self sufficiency of adults. This contrasts sharply with a prior body of social science evidence suggesting that the spatial segregation of minority workers from concentrations of urban employment leads to reduced earnings, employment, and minority welfare. We assess the importance of the experimental findings. To establish a prior about the expected effects of the experimental treatments in these five MSAs, we estimate a simple statistical model of the effects of spatial isolation from job concentrations on the employment levels of black workers. We then analyze whether the experiment could have reasonably been expected to detect effects of this magnitude. We conclude that the experimental treatment observed ex post – a reduction of the neighborhood poverty rate for experimental subjects from the 96th percentile of the poverty distribution to the 88th percent – could not be expected to yield detectable effects. We conclude that the experimental results of the MTO are uninformative about the potential effects of neighborhood isolation on the employment levels of low-income black workers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sallis, James F. ; Slymen, Donald J.; Conway, Terry L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Cain, Kelli; Chapman, James E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    The present study explored whether perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with physical activity differ by neighborhood income. Adults aged 20-65 years (n=2199; 48% female; mean age=45 years; 26% ethnic minority) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods from the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions that varied in objectively measured walkability and neighborhood income. Perceived built and social environment variables were assessed with the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. There were neighborhood income disparities on 10 of 15 variables. Residents from high-income neighborhoods reported more favorable esthetics, pedestrian/biking facilities, safety from traffic, safety from crime, and access to recreation facilities than residents of low-income areas (all p's <0.001). Low-income neighborhoods may lack amenities and safety attributes that can facilitate high levels of physical activity for both transportation and recreation purposes. (Author abstract)

    The present study explored whether perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with physical activity differ by neighborhood income. Adults aged 20-65 years (n=2199; 48% female; mean age=45 years; 26% ethnic minority) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods from the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions that varied in objectively measured walkability and neighborhood income. Perceived built and social environment variables were assessed with the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. There were neighborhood income disparities on 10 of 15 variables. Residents from high-income neighborhoods reported more favorable esthetics, pedestrian/biking facilities, safety from traffic, safety from crime, and access to recreation facilities than residents of low-income areas (all p's <0.001). Low-income neighborhoods may lack amenities and safety attributes that can facilitate high levels of physical activity for both transportation and recreation purposes. (Author abstract)

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