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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Ovwigho, Pamela Caudill; Leavitt, Katharine L.; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Recent research has documented that those leaving TANF in the later years of reform face more challenges to leaving welfare for work and may not be faring as well as earlier exiters. The present study utilizes data from a large-scale, longitudinal study of TANF leavers to examine risk factors for child maltreatment, particularly focusing on the question of higher risk for later leavers. The sample, from Maryland’s Life After Welfare study, includes 17,441 children from 8,900 families who exited TANF between October 1996 and March 2001. Of these children, 7.3% (n = 1,269) experienced a child protective services investigation during the first year after exit, in which abuse or neglect was substantiated or indicated. Discrete time event history analysis revealed several significant predictors of child abuse and neglect, with child welfare history emerging as the strongest predictor. Moreover, we find that risk of a substantiated CPS report is higher for later leaving families, even after controlling for family characteristics and post-exit experiences. These results suggest that...

    Recent research has documented that those leaving TANF in the later years of reform face more challenges to leaving welfare for work and may not be faring as well as earlier exiters. The present study utilizes data from a large-scale, longitudinal study of TANF leavers to examine risk factors for child maltreatment, particularly focusing on the question of higher risk for later leavers. The sample, from Maryland’s Life After Welfare study, includes 17,441 children from 8,900 families who exited TANF between October 1996 and March 2001. Of these children, 7.3% (n = 1,269) experienced a child protective services investigation during the first year after exit, in which abuse or neglect was substantiated or indicated. Discrete time event history analysis revealed several significant predictors of child abuse and neglect, with child welfare history emerging as the strongest predictor. Moreover, we find that risk of a substantiated CPS report is higher for later leaving families, even after controlling for family characteristics and post-exit experiences. These results suggest that policy makers and program managers may need to consider providing extra support to families with a child welfare history who are exiting the rolls in the later years of reform. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a report published by the University of Maryland School of Social Work.

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Tracy, Kirk; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    In many welfare offices, a key component of the Family Violence Option (FVO) of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was the establishment of experts trained in domestic violence and the new policy. This study analyzes the effect an FVO expert has on three outcomes: domestic violence disclosures; administrative documentation of disclosures; and FVO waiver use. Findings show that the presence of an expert is not related to disclosures or documentation, but does have a statistically significant, negative effect on the likelihood of waiver use. These mixed results indicate that the presence or absence of an expert is not necessarily indicative of an agency's commitment to the FVO. (author abstract)

    In many welfare offices, a key component of the Family Violence Option (FVO) of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was the establishment of experts trained in domestic violence and the new policy. This study analyzes the effect an FVO expert has on three outcomes: domestic violence disclosures; administrative documentation of disclosures; and FVO waiver use. Findings show that the presence of an expert is not related to disclosures or documentation, but does have a statistically significant, negative effect on the likelihood of waiver use. These mixed results indicate that the presence or absence of an expert is not necessarily indicative of an agency's commitment to the FVO. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    The Family Violence Option (FVO) protects welfare recipients who are domestic violence victims or survivors by providing service referrals and waivers from certain requirements. Implementation of the FVO has been difficult for welfare agencies and disclosures and service uptake have been low. Using administrative data and caseworker notes, this study compares demographic and case characteristics and abuse experiences among four analytic groups. Although differences in demographics are most pronounced between victims and nonvictims, experiences with abuse and services differed between victims who received waivers versus those who did not. Findings indicate that caseworkers may base service decisions on abuse experiences. (author abstract)

    The Family Violence Option (FVO) protects welfare recipients who are domestic violence victims or survivors by providing service referrals and waivers from certain requirements. Implementation of the FVO has been difficult for welfare agencies and disclosures and service uptake have been low. Using administrative data and caseworker notes, this study compares demographic and case characteristics and abuse experiences among four analytic groups. Although differences in demographics are most pronounced between victims and nonvictims, experiences with abuse and services differed between victims who received waivers versus those who did not. Findings indicate that caseworkers may base service decisions on abuse experiences. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ovwigho, Pamela C.; Kolupanowich, Nicholas J.; Hetling, Andrea; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    An increasing number of people no longer enrolled in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) experience periods of “disconnection” after exiting the welfare program. The present research, based on data from a large longitudinal state welfare leaver study, explores the circumstances and characteristics of welfare leavers who receive no formal employment earnings but do not return to cash assistance for at least 1 year after exiting welfare. Using a variety of administrative program data and welfare caseworker notes, the size of the various subgroups within the disconnected population and their possible needs were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 6 important subgroups with differing needs and barriers. The findings focus on policy implications, particularly in relation to the Congressional reauthorization of TANF. (author abstract)

    An increasing number of people no longer enrolled in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) experience periods of “disconnection” after exiting the welfare program. The present research, based on data from a large longitudinal state welfare leaver study, explores the circumstances and characteristics of welfare leavers who receive no formal employment earnings but do not return to cash assistance for at least 1 year after exiting welfare. Using a variety of administrative program data and welfare caseworker notes, the size of the various subgroups within the disconnected population and their possible needs were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 6 important subgroups with differing needs and barriers. The findings focus on policy implications, particularly in relation to the Congressional reauthorization of TANF. (author abstract)

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