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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Barber, Jennifer S. ; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman ; Gatny, Heather H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    In this paper, we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and, in part, because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in...

    In this paper, we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and, in part, because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and, in part, because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained. For example, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Busso, Matias; Gregory, Jesse; Kline, Patrick
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    This article empirically assesses the incidence and efficiency of Round 1 of the federal urban Empowerment Zone (EZ) program using confidential microdata from the Decennial Census and the Longitudinal Business Database. Using rejected and future applicants to the EZ program as controls, we find that EZ designation substantially increased employment in zone neighborhoods and generated wage increases for local workers without corresponding increases in population or the local cost of living. The results suggest the efficiency costs of the first round o EZs were relatively modest. (author abstract)

    This article empirically assesses the incidence and efficiency of Round 1 of the federal urban Empowerment Zone (EZ) program using confidential microdata from the Decennial Census and the Longitudinal Business Database. Using rejected and future applicants to the EZ program as controls, we find that EZ designation substantially increased employment in zone neighborhoods and generated wage increases for local workers without corresponding increases in population or the local cost of living. The results suggest the efficiency costs of the first round o EZs were relatively modest. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Riccucci, Norma M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    This article examines the impact of street-level bureaucrats on the implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policies in the State of Michigan. Michigan's welfare programs are highly centralized, leaving counties very little formal discretion to run their programs. The formal signals sent by Michigan officials around welfare reform revolve around work first—immediate job placement over human capital investment. In a two-step analysis, including Analysis of Variance techniques, an examination of three local sites within Michigan indicates that street-level bureaucrats in welfare offices do not see their own priorities in the context of the formal goal of welfare in Michigan (i.e., work first). Moreover, the research indicates that there is variation across the three counties within the state. The findings of this research ultimately suggest that the discretionary power of street-level bureaucrats is an important determinant in the implementation of public policy, and that reference point of their discretionary power is not the supervisor but, in fact, the...

    This article examines the impact of street-level bureaucrats on the implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policies in the State of Michigan. Michigan's welfare programs are highly centralized, leaving counties very little formal discretion to run their programs. The formal signals sent by Michigan officials around welfare reform revolve around work first—immediate job placement over human capital investment. In a two-step analysis, including Analysis of Variance techniques, an examination of three local sites within Michigan indicates that street-level bureaucrats in welfare offices do not see their own priorities in the context of the formal goal of welfare in Michigan (i.e., work first). Moreover, the research indicates that there is variation across the three counties within the state. The findings of this research ultimately suggest that the discretionary power of street-level bureaucrats is an important determinant in the implementation of public policy, and that reference point of their discretionary power is not the supervisor but, in fact, the client. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hill, Heather D.; Morris, Pamela A.; Castells, Nina; Walker, Jessica T.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity. IV estimates suggest that maternal job loss sharply increases problem behavior but has neutral effects on positive social behavior. Current employment programs concentrate primarily on job entry, but these findings point to the importance of promoting job stability for workers and their children. (Author abstract)

    This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity. IV estimates suggest that maternal job loss sharply increases problem behavior but has neutral effects on positive social behavior. Current employment programs concentrate primarily on job entry, but these findings point to the importance of promoting job stability for workers and their children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children’s schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children’s health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates—a potential indicator of poor health—and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary. (Author abstract)

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children’s schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children’s health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates—a potential indicator of poor health—and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary. (Author abstract)

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