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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Okech, David
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    This study examines the independent effects of socio-demographic variables and program social services on the degree of economic strain among lower income parents who had an opportunity to open child savings in a subsidized savings accounts program known as Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED). SEED is a policy, practice and research initiative designed to test the efficacy of and inform policy for a national system of asset-building accounts for children and youth. Findings suggest that overall, the degree of economic strain was not significantly different at baseline and at the second wave between parents who opened accounts and those who did not open accounts for their children. However, household income, having a household savings account, and receipt of means-tested welfare programs affected the degrees of economic strain. Implications are directed toward helping lower income families effectively participate in child savings programs. (author abstract)

    This study examines the independent effects of socio-demographic variables and program social services on the degree of economic strain among lower income parents who had an opportunity to open child savings in a subsidized savings accounts program known as Saving for Education, Entrepreneurship, and Downpayment (SEED). SEED is a policy, practice and research initiative designed to test the efficacy of and inform policy for a national system of asset-building accounts for children and youth. Findings suggest that overall, the degree of economic strain was not significantly different at baseline and at the second wave between parents who opened accounts and those who did not open accounts for their children. However, household income, having a household savings account, and receipt of means-tested welfare programs affected the degrees of economic strain. Implications are directed toward helping lower income families effectively participate in child savings programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997-1999, this study examines how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. We use a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant characteristics of mothers and children that may bias estimates of the associations between maternal work behavior and child well-being. We find that moving from welfare-reliance to combining welfare and work is associated with a decrease in harsh parenting, an increase in positive parenting, and decreases in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among children. We do not find evidence that parenting practices account for the associations between the transition from welfare to work and children’s behavior problems. Overall, these results suggest that policies that allow women to combine welfare and work may be most beneficial for children. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper...

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997-1999, this study examines how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. We use a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant characteristics of mothers and children that may bias estimates of the associations between maternal work behavior and child well-being. We find that moving from welfare-reliance to combining welfare and work is associated with a decrease in harsh parenting, an increase in positive parenting, and decreases in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among children. We do not find evidence that parenting practices account for the associations between the transition from welfare to work and children’s behavior problems. Overall, these results suggest that policies that allow women to combine welfare and work may be most beneficial for children. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper published by the Joint Center for Poverty Research.

  • Individual Author: Schneider, Daniel ; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers’ experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men’s controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. (Author abstract)

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers’ experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men’s controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wagle, Udaya R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Michigan has undergone enormous labor market changes since the 1990s affecting employment, income, and poverty. This paper examines changes in poverty among working families and their policy-related and socio-demographic determinants between 1998/1999 and 2007/2008 in Michigan. Findings suggest the rates of ‘poverty’ and ‘near poverty’ to be between 5 and 19% among working families, with slightly higher rates for the latter period. Public transfers combining taxes and means-tested supports, albeit making some impact among poor families with children, were unable to lower these rates. While the major socio-demographic characteristics of poverty and near poverty including large families with children and young, never married, single mother, and immigrant householders apply to working families, the roles of gender, race, marital status, and education manifest through many policy-related variables such as work hours, wages, and transfer incomes. These findings have important implications for understanding working poverty in Michigan and beyond. (author abstract)

    This article...

    Michigan has undergone enormous labor market changes since the 1990s affecting employment, income, and poverty. This paper examines changes in poverty among working families and their policy-related and socio-demographic determinants between 1998/1999 and 2007/2008 in Michigan. Findings suggest the rates of ‘poverty’ and ‘near poverty’ to be between 5 and 19% among working families, with slightly higher rates for the latter period. Public transfers combining taxes and means-tested supports, albeit making some impact among poor families with children, were unable to lower these rates. While the major socio-demographic characteristics of poverty and near poverty including large families with children and young, never married, single mother, and immigrant householders apply to working families, the roles of gender, race, marital status, and education manifest through many policy-related variables such as work hours, wages, and transfer incomes. These findings have important implications for understanding working poverty in Michigan and beyond. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.; Corcoran, Mary E.; Oltmans, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui-Chen
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for work and has made it more difficult for nonworking recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state policies have raised the net income gain associated with moving from welfare to work. This paper analyzes data from a panel survey of single mothers, all of whom received welfare in February 1997. In 1999, those who left welfare and were working had a higher household income and lower poverty rate, experienced a similar level of material hardship, engaged in fewer activities to make ends meet, and had lower expectations of experiencing hardship in the near future than did nonworking welfare recipients. Estimations of fixed-effect regressions of income that control for both observable and unobservable time-invariant characteristics show that monthly net income increases by $2.63 for every additional hour of work effort. About 60 percent of the observed monthly income difference between wage-reliant and...

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for work and has made it more difficult for nonworking recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state policies have raised the net income gain associated with moving from welfare to work. This paper analyzes data from a panel survey of single mothers, all of whom received welfare in February 1997. In 1999, those who left welfare and were working had a higher household income and lower poverty rate, experienced a similar level of material hardship, engaged in fewer activities to make ends meet, and had lower expectations of experiencing hardship in the near future than did nonworking welfare recipients. Estimations of fixed-effect regressions of income that control for both observable and unobservable time-invariant characteristics show that monthly net income increases by $2.63 for every additional hour of work effort. About 60 percent of the observed monthly income difference between wage-reliant and welfare-reliant mothers can be attributed to differences in their work effort. Thus, after welfare reform, it does pay to move from welfare to work. (author abstract)

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